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History and antiquities of the 

ca til edral cli urcii es of Grea t Britain 

James Norris Brewer, Henry Sargant Storer 





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Ezliibiting genend and particular Viewty Gronnd Plans, and alt the architectural Features and 
Ornaments in the farious Styles of Building in our 

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A British, a RomaD, and a Saxon city existed at Rochester ^^ of 
the first no authentic intelligence remains, but vestiges of the two 
latter occur in almost every part of the present city. Christianity, it 
is probable, had also its votaries here, as well as in Canterbury, long 
before the arrival of A ugustin, or the prelacy of Justus. The light 
of truth, indeed, appears to have been early diffused, according to the 
divine command, in every inhabited spot of our island, but whether 
the people were ExXixTof , that is, disposed, or sufficiently civilized to 
receive and retain it, is a question which too many modern Christians 
seem ignorant how to determine. At Rochester, according to the 
suspicious testimony of monkish historians, the people f were particu- 
larly adverse to the religious sentiments promulgated by Augustin ; but 
the subsequent rapid progress of the Christian faith is a sufficient proof, 
that if any indifference were manifested, it arose from ignorance and 

* According to Lombard, one of the oldest and best expositor* of local names, the Medwmj 
wai here called by the Britons Dwr-hrif or Dour-bryft the " Swift Stream." This appellation 
was naturally transferred to the town erected on its banks. The Romans called this place DwrO' 
trova, Ditro&nv<r, Durobrovumt or DurobrivU, which was corrupted to RoUni, The Saxons, 
according to Bede, named it Hrqfe$cea$ter or Hrofeceastre (RhoPs City), from " Rhqf, or rather 
Hrqf, sometyme lorde and owner thereof." As to the Roman appellation, it may have been 
adopted from the British, provided that the Romans knew it; but its early occupation by those 
warriors, and its radical similarity to the names of several other pUces in Kent, as Dmrovenum, 
Dnrole$mm, &c. render it extremely probable that they denominated Rochester, as well as other 
places, according to the character of the adjoining woods, from ^ovfovt lignum. Of the Roman 
antiquities there cannot be a doubt, and Kilbume states, that Csesar ordered the castle to be 
built to awe the Britons, that it was called the castle df Medway, but falling to decay, king 
Oisc or Uske, about 490, caused Hrof, one of his chief counsellors, to build a new castle upon 
the old foundation, and hence it took the name of Hrofe*$ CeaUer. That the Roman CoMtrum 
was repaired by Oisc may be admitted, as in 765 king Egbert gave a certain portion of land to 
the church lying vfithin the walls of the castle of Rochester, and in 855 Ethelwulf, king of 
Wessex, gave a house to his minister, Dunne, situated ^' in meridie Castelli Hroffi." 

t A monkish writer asserts, that they were so much addicted to idolatry, that the word of 
God, as preached by Augustin, appeared to them foolishness, and they not only treated him 
and his associates with the most abusive language (which, however, they could not understand), 
bat pers<mally insulted them, and besmeared their garments with the tails of fishes 1 The reader 
will believe just as much of this as he pleases : but whoever considers, that in the course of 
little more than seven years the whole island, or rather the whole of the Saxon inhabitants (for 
the Britons were Christians), was converted to Christianity, will perhaps be disposed to think 
that among the numerous professions of a monk, that of telling the truth does not enter. The 
ical disposition of the people of Rochester towards the Christian faith, may be better ascertained 
hj comparing the progreM of mitsioaarica in the present enlightened timet. 


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not perversity. In 600 king Ethelbert founded a religious establishment 
in Rochester, and commenced building a churchy which was finished in 
four years. At the same time a chapter of secular priests and a kind of 
priory were connected with the cathedral, which was piously and rati- 
onally dedicated * to the honour of God, and named after the apostle 
St. Andrew. Justus, a Roman missionary, being sent to assist Augus- 
tin in 601, was by him consecrated the first bishop of Rochester in 604. 
King Eadbald haying for a moment evioned. some infidel feelings, Jus- 
tus fled to France, but archbishop Lawrance succeeded in reforming the 
king, and the bishop of Ro£fen returned to his pastoral duty, which he 
continued faithfully to discharge till 624, when he was translated to 
the see of Canterbury f . 

It is not recorded that this church was often repaired, although it 
was repeatedly desolated by domestic as well as foreign soldiers. la 
676 it was plundered by ^thelred, king of Mercia ; by the Danes in 
839 ; and unsuccessfully besieged by them in 885.: in 986 it was at- 
tacked by king Ethelred in revenge at the bishop 5 and in 998 it was 
again pillaged by the Danes ; so that at the time of the Norman inva- 
sion, the church, according to our historians, was in such '^ a state of 
poverty that divine worship was entirely neglected in it." The cathe- 
dral and priory, indeed, were marked objects of spoliation on every oc- 
casion ; bishop Putta was driven from his see by the Mercians and be- 
came bishop of Hereford. His successor also abandoned his charge ; 
but, whatever injury the building may have sustained, we have 
no account of its being rebuilt, only some slight repairs and ad-p 
ditiotis were made, as by bishop Tobias {, who built St. Paul's 
porch to " the church of St. Andrew, for the place of his inter- 
ment.'* During the prelacy of Eardulph, the cathedral establish- 
ment somewhat recovered its losses, and it received from kings Offit 
and Sigered grants of Frindsbury, Wickhaip, and Bromley. Th^ 
record of these donations, however^ is extremely confused. Bishop 
Swithulf was appointed one of the guardians of the realm, and bravely 
discharged the duties of this important office, by compelling the Danes, 
who then infested the coast, to raise the siege of Rochester. To hi : 
shop Burhicus, or Burrhic, West Mailing was given *' by king Edmund, 

* Ethelbert't church, observes Denne, in Cuttum* R^ff* was dedicated to St. Andrew, ''as a 
tolcen of respect to the monastery of St. Andrew at Bome^ from which AugusUn and his brethren 
were sent to convert the Anglo-Saxons ; and after the ckuroh was rebuilt* Lanfranc did not 
change the name of its tatdary saint as he did in his own cathedral, the primate Imvhig swA 
confidence in this apostle, that he nerer transmitted by Oundnlph any principal donation with* 
oat entreating the bisht^ to chaunt th^ lx>rd*s Pnyer once for him at the altar of St. Andrew.** 

t It is worthy of remark, that this was the first BngUsh prdate ftom wlKran the pope^ 
Boniface V. demanded obedience as universal bishop, when he 4ent him his pidl* The same 
pope also instituted sanctuaries lor offenders. 

t Bede extols this prelate as ** virum Latina Grace, et 8axoRic»llngiia atqne amditione 
multipliciter instructum.** 

00 ' 

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A. D. 1080.] KBNT. 

the brother of Athelstan^ under the name of three ploogfa-lands io 
Mealinges*,** Atbelstan gave to bishop Kyneferde tlie priyil^ of a 
mint here ; but during the prelacy of Alfstane, the Danes seized nearly 
all the revenues of the see. King Ethelred II. was also a despoiler of 
our church ^ but he afterwards repented, and returned the plunder : 
but iu 999 the merciless Danes again got possession of our city. The 
bishop, Godwyn III. is generally believed to have been their prisoner^ 
with archbishop Alphege, in 1011 ; but a prelate of this name is men- 
tioned in a letter of Edward the Confessor so late as 1044, when the 
see must have sunk under its misfortunes, and remained vacant several 
years, as it was not till 1058 that the covetous Si ward was consecrated 
its bishop. The Normans brought new spoliations, and Odo, bishop 
of Bayeux, becoming earl of Kent, seized every thing which could 
assist his licentiousness and extravagance. In this state of poverty and 
depression the see remained till the active Gundulph f was consecrated 
in 1077. Lanfranc had, in a public assembly 1$ recovered the estates 
given by William I. to the unprincipled Odo, and Gundulph him- 
self obtained the restoration of Isleham manor, in Cambridgeshire. 
With the energy of an original artist, and the bigotry of a monk, he 
began by disinheriting the secular or married clergy, to make room for 
Benedictine monks iu the priory of St. Andrew. '* He raised money suffi- 
cient, through the assistance of his great patron Lanfranc, to rebuild (or 
greatly repair) the church and enlarge the priory, which at this time 
were both hastening to ruin. Although he did not live to finish the great 
improvement which he had undertaken, yet it is certain that he laid the 
foundation of the future prosperity of this church and priory. He re- 
moved the bodies of his predecessors, which had been elsewhere inter- 
red, into some parts of his new fabric that he completed first for this 

* A copy of Edmund's charter conveying Uiis grant appears in the TexUu Roffenni and 
Dttgdale's Moncuticon, It contains a circumstance which illustrates the ingenuity of papal Rome, 
in reconciling indulgence with the moral law, and is worthy the chicanery of Indian Brahmina 
' in eluding the laws of casts. ** Amidst the respectable and reverend names,'* observes Grose, 
** of the king's brother (Edrid), and mother, Eadgife, two archbishops, several bishops and 
priests, and divers of the nobility who witnessed this charter, there appears that of iElfgefu, 
the king's concuUnc, who in her signature thus particularizes her station : * JE(/^«, concubiMa 
* r^ q/ftfi.*— Concubinage did not then mean what it does at present, but was a kind of legal 
contract inferior to that of marriage, and used when there was a considerable disparity between 
the parties, the Roman law (of incompatibility, which existed even in France till the revolu* 
tion) not suffering a man to marry a woman greatly beneath him in birth and condition, but 
allowing such woman to be kept as a concubine, provided the man had no wife. Concubines 
were also permitted (and kept) by several popes ; and the 17th canon of the council of Toledo 
declares, that ** he who with a faithful wife keeps a concubine, is excommunicated }** but if the 
concubine served him as a wife, so that he had only one woman, unfler the title of concubine, he 
should not be rejected from the communion. This accounts for the name of iElfgefu being found 
in such company on so solemn an occasion, which could not have happened had the character 
of concubine been deemed either sinful or dishonourable." 

t Malmesbury records a tradition, that his fortune was foretold by his friend and patron 
Lanfranc, from a trial of the fortes ifvoi^Itca, many years before either of them could have 
any ideas of their promotion, except the suggestions of soaring ambition and ardent hope* 

t See " Graphic and Historical Description of Canterbary Cathedral.** 


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purpose $ he also ioclosed the remains of Paulinus, the third bishop^ in 
a curious shrine of silver, and procured his canonization in 1087 •" 

Vulgar tradition, supported by the fact that Gundulph was a pre- 
late of little learning but much architectural genius, has attributed to 
him entirely the honour of building the present cathedral, at least 
those parts which are of acknowledged antiquity, as the nave, west 
front, ancient chapter-house, 8tc. It is added, that he was not only 
fortunate iu being assisted with money from archbishop Lanfranc, 
kings William I*, and II. and Henry I. but also had the .pleasure of 
nearly completing his own church. The words of the historian, cited in 
proof of this^do not authorize such an extensive compliment. It is there 
said, '' Ecclesiam Andreas pcene vetustate dirutam, novam ex mtegro uc 
hodieapparet/sedificavits" words which simply signify, that he had re- 
paired the ancient ruined church of St. Andrew, and restored it to its 
original state, as it now appears. A similar expression is applied to his 
repairs <^ the castle. By no possibility whatever could this 
designed to affirm, that Oundulph laid the foundation of any new work 
which he completed, not even the tower, which still bears his name. 
His repairs, alterations, and improvements, indeed, may have been very 
extensive ; but these are rather presumed than proved by the historian. 
With this negative evidence, therefore, that Gundulph did not build 
the whole of the cathedral, we .must seek for another and more pro- 
bable architect or founder in that age of spoliation and fanaticism, 
during the reign of Ethelred II. and the prelacy of the Godwyns. The 
king, by his charter in 998, restored to the church and bishop the 
property of which he had deprived them, and in very strong terms de- 
plores his juvenile impieties, which he ascribes to evil counsellors, but 
principally to one Ethelstan, whom he calls ^' an unhappy enemy to 
God and the whole people." It is not credible, that the repentant 
Ethelred would rest content with merely restoring the ecclesiastical 
property without augmenting it, according to the custom of the age, 

* William I. left lOOl. and hi* royal robe to the church of Rochester, a bequest equal to 
1500t. in the present day. This, howerer, was not the only resource of Gundulph } this active 
monk had recourse to another expedient, which in modern times would be construed into some- 
thing very like swindling. While building the white tower in the Tower of London, he lodged 
with Eadmer Anhsende, a rich burgess, from whom he obtained the moiety of a fishery /called the 
** Nieuve Uveri," during the lives of his generous or credulous host and his wife, and the whole 
of it, with all their property in London, at their decease. For this valuable grant (which was 
confirmed by Henry I. and the fishermen restrained from trespassing on the fishery), in relum 
they were to be admitted members of his religious sodety, to be interred in the church of St. 
Andrew, and indulged with an anniversary solemnity for the peace of their souls. The writer 
of the Textui Rqf. states, what will readily be believed, that Gundulph accepted their property 
on these terms. Persons thus admitted, however depraved, were insured of a passage to heaven 
without any obstacle, the same as the monks themselves. It was also common to be clothed 
in religious habits previous to expiring ; " but this dress was an article of no small expense to 
their heirs.** William deCloeville (Text. Roff.) gave two parts of his tithe in Acle, now Oke- 
Icy, to the priory, in consideration of the monks making his son one of their number, and G«»- 
dulph confirmed this grant. 

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A. D. 1130.] KBWT. 

perhaps sevenfold. No persons so apt to (all into extremes as new 
converts ; and it is not unlikely, that considering the strength of 
Rochester, and the valoor of its inhabitants, he rebnilt* the cathedral, 
as the best spiritual and physical means of efiectually resisting the 
Danes. Many parts of the present edifice exhibit some lithological 
evidence of being upwards of eight centuries old. But although this 
view of historical fscts may tend to deprive Oundulph of die honour of 
rebuilding our cathedral, which he occupied thirty-two years, his merits 
as an architect of castles remain unshaken. Still less does it invalidata 
the happy remark of Lambard, that this prelate " never rested from 
building and begging, tricking and garnishing, until he had erected 
his idol building to the wealth, beauty, and estimation of a popish 
priory." His priory, monks, and military castles, indeed, certainly 
engrossed much more of his thoughts than churches or public wor- 
ship, although his Bimt, Xenmm f, or present, in token of hospitality, 
occasioned much trouble to the monks. That he did not live to finish 
whatever alterations or additions he intended to the cathedral, not- 
withstanding the expression of Eamulph, must be unequivocally ad- 
mitted, as it was not dedicated till 1130, five years after the death of 
the historian, and twenty-three after that of the reputed architect {. 

The second prelate after Gundulph was Eamulph, another fol- 
lower of Lanfranc, the historian of the priory, and builder of the 
dormitory, refectory, and chapter-house for the monks ||. His sue- 

* One tfict, which I9 noticed by the jndidoiu Mr. Denae, (Hist, of Boch.) tends ttrongly to 
confirm this pofitioo. " The year 10 14, it marked on one of the beam* of the roof in the nare of 
the chnrch) ft is not easy to accoont for this date, it being ao [70] yean before the time when 
Gundulph is said to hare rebuilt it, and brings us bacit to the reign of Ethelred II. } the date 
agrees with the time of his repentance, it being about two years before his death. It may then' 
fore be conyctnred, that kt ryairtd tkii dmrck w mtammeutfor ld$ forum it Qw rim to U : and that 
this beam was either laid in his time, or, if it was afterwards replaced, the new beam might be 
marlced with the same date.** 

t Oundulph, ftom the rarious property which he had bestowed to the monks, reserred to 
himself and his successors a right to cerUin articles on St. Andrew's day, which were annually 
to be presented under the above name as a present to the bishop, thtir guest and benefactor. 
The articles were, 16 hogs cured for bacon, SO geese, 900 fowls, 1000 laroprejrs, 1000 eggs, 4 sal- 
mon, 00 bundles of forse, 18 seam and a measure of oaU ; but half the fish and eggs to be the 
monks* portion: and from Lambert (Lambeth), 1000 lamprey for the use of the monks; and 
horn Hadenham, 90t. worth of fish to be carried to their cellar. In case of the bishop's absence 
on that di^, the whole to be distributed by the monks, to the poor and strangers, in honour of 
the festind. The monks afterwards contested the claims of the bishops to this senium with 
great-obstinacy, and it was finally agreed to accept a composition ; which, in the time of Htuno 
de Hethe, amounted to 4<. I9s. Od. for all the articles, except the corn, which was to be estimated 
at the market price. 

t, He founded St. Bartholomew's hospital for lepers, in Chatham ; a nunnery, at West 
Mailing } repaired the walls of the castle, &c. He was not so fortunate in all his artifices as wit^ 
Anhcnde; and after being in possession of land at Dclce some years, he was obliged to pay lOt. 
in money and a horse worth an equal sum to the rightful heir. Nor could be recover tb^e manor 
of Stone till he gave Wm. Bufus I5l. and a mule worth lOOs. equal to ibl. steriing, Hence we 
have the price of horses and mules in those days, in which the latter were ten tipaes the price 
<^ the farmer. 

I When a monk of Canterbury, he began the works in the choir which Conrad finished} 
imd while abbot of Peterburgh, nt erected the refectory, dormitory, and fipished the chi^pt^;- 
house. He seems to have had much more taste and skill than Gundulpl^* 


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cessor John, archdeacon of Canterbury, had the honour of dedicating, 
or rather of assisting, archbishop Corboil, and ten other English and two 
Nonoan bishops, at the dedication of the cathed;*al, in presence of the 
king. The festivities of the dedication or consecration, however, were 
not terminated, when a dreadful conflagration destroyed a considerable 
part of the city, and even damaged the new church. In lld7> another 
fire occurred, which greatly injured the priory, and even obliged the 
monks to seek a temporary lodging in the hospitals and other parts. 
A fire is also recorded as happening in 1177> but to what extent it is 
DOW impossible to determine. One thing is generally admitted, that 
the accounts of those burnings, transmitted to posterity, must be egre« 
giously exaggerated*, otherwise the re-edification of such buildings, 
and even whole cities, must have been an almost insuperable task in 
those times of war and civil commotion. There was then, however, 
and still is, a great piCrtiality in the Romish church to burn lamps, 
torches, and candles in churches. The Norman bishop of Say or Seez, 
diminished, them and plundered the church during his prelacy. Godwin 
did not include him in his list of bishops. The estates which he alienated 
were restored to the priory and cathedral by the pope, at the instance of 
bishop Ascelin. The ambition and despotism of the monks had now be- 
come intolerable. The archbishop of Canterbury had hitherto nominated 
the bishop of Rochester 5 Theobald conferred on them the right of 
electing their own bishq), and they chose his brother, Walter. Gualeran 
or Waleran, archdeacon of Bayeux, being his successor, soon felt the 
effects of their newly-acquired power; and, it is said, that he died 
when on the eve of setting out to Rome, to solicit the pope's 
permission to eject the regular canons from the priory and introduce 
seculars. He was a friend to knowledge and virtue ; he bequeathed his 
church a gloss on the psalms, and St. Paul's epistles. His successor, 
Gilbert de Glanvill, a native of Northumberland, and archdeacon of Li- 
sieux, in France, was actuated by the same principles ; and like bishop 
Nunant, of Coventry, determined on teaching the monks some better 
notions of justice and humanity. Much more philosophical and judi- 

* The words of Gerrase, a monk, (X. Script.) are very comprehensive; •* ecclesiasancti An- 
drejB cum officinis suis cum ipsa civitate (Roff.) igne consnmpta est, etin eineremredacta," A. D. 
1179. Edmund de Hadenham, in Jngl. Sac. says, " Roffensis ecclesia cum omnibus officinis et 
lota iir&e ii)/V« et extra tnurog secundo combusta est iii Idas Aprilis, anno xcrii. ex quo monachi 
eadem ecclesia instituti sunt." The burning of the toAote city within and without the walls 
seems a mere report, magnified by some imbecile alarmist to excite emotion. Many of those 
conflagrations, particularly in the cathedral, appear to have been only the burning of part of the 
dress of the images, occasioned by the accidental fall of a candle. No doubt, a lighted taper 
fSdling on some virgin's petticoats would electrify the imagination of monks, and hence their 
bombastic or extrav&gant statements. Perhaps, also, some of these writers, like Ferdinand VII. 
of Spain, enj<^ed the honourable office of " man-milliner to the Virgin Maiy," and the more 
dreadful they represented the conflagration, the more liberal would be the subscriptions for their 
relief. It is remarkable, however, respecting the reported Are in ll79f that " no trace of it is 
to be found in any ancient charter or writings in the R^fUtrum R<\ffen»e,** which contains many 
events that did occur about that period. 

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A, D. 1214.] KBMT. 

ctous than his lordship of Cotentry, he curtailed their power wilhc^t 
incurring any papal censures. He stated^ that Gkmdulph had dispossessed 
the seculars without the sanction or even pririty of the Roman see; 
and that he had given them estates in perpetuity which he could only 
grant for his own life. Themonks^ too, on their part, had usurped 
much property i>eIonging to the see, obtained clandestinely presentm* 
tions, and swindled many persons, without the connivance or consent 
of their ordinary. Glanvill required the restoration of this property; 
yet so obstinate were the monlis, that they spent all their money in 
kw, and even melted their god (the silver shrine of Paulinus), to coin 
more, and retain their plunder. But they were finally compelled to 
submit dieniselves to the clemency of their diocesan. As an ex- 
ample, however, of the satanic spirit, which always did, and al- 
ways will, actuate monks or cloistered men, they endeavoured to 
prevent the remains of this great and worthy prelate from being 
interred in the cathedral, in 1214; and being defeated in this at- 
tempt, they hastened his funeral, that he might be buried before 
the papal interdict was taken off the nation, which the demoniacal 
pope had issued to trample on die neck of the nnfprtunate £nglish 
king. Glanvill, indeed, who was chancellor and chief -justice, has 
been truly designated " a vigilant, active pastor, a benefactor to the 
diurch and see ;'* he built a new cloister, furnished the church with 
an organ, paid a d^t of 301. which the monks *^ had contracted with 
the Jews to support their unjustifiable contest with him ;** and gave 
them sundry ornaments and books*. He also rebuilt the episcopal 

* These were Bartkolommu advtmu Judeoi, and the Penteteuchy in 9 vols. The Utter 
*' were a most valuable present , for, strange as it may appear in this learned and enlightened 
age, there i« no snudl reason to doubt, whether this sodety, though institnted principally (no- 
minally) for religious purposes, were before possessed of this part of the holy scriptures.** The 
ignorance and illiterateness of the monks are ably discussed in the '* History and Antiquities of 
Rochester ;** the rudiments of grammar were only ** occasionally** taught, and it is doubtful, 
from the consisiorial acts of bishop Fisher, whether there was a master here, and how hx the 
monks were qualified for such a tasll. Although Kent has always abounded in philosophers and 
heroes, yet it ** is undeniable the Rochester cloisters are said not to have produced one person 
eminently learned.*' Bishop Tanner gives only the names of Edmund de Haddcnham and ^m. 
Dean or de Dene, as authors } but the latter, perhaps, belonged to Winchester : the work of the 
former is a Chronicle from the Creation to 1307, but all that ** does not relate to this church is 
transcribed from William of Malmesbury }** and Dean*8 consists of " the annals of this cathe- 
dral from 1314 to 1348, or rather the history of bishop Haymo de Hethe.** Hence we see, that 
till the reformation neither literature nor true religion made any advances here. John (prior) 
wrote a volume of theological questions, which are still preserved in MS. The gift of bishop 
Hethe to the prioiy, of decretals, constitutions, &c. althQUgh necessary boolcs in that i^;e, can- 
not raise our opinion of the learning and library of the monks. His directions to the poor in 
the hospital which he founded at Hythc, to repeat the Lord's prayer and angePssaluUtion to the 
Virgin 300 times a day, seem to imply that they would *' be heard for their much speaking.** 
It appears very doubtful whether the priory possessed a complete copy of the Scriptures } and 
bishop Fisher's prosecution of William Mafelde, precentor, for not delivering up a copy of the 
Gosp^ translated into English, according to the orders of Wolsey, proves their deplorable con- 
dition in this respect. The only method that the precentor had of escaping a severe sentence for 
this most heinous offence, was by basely betraying the name of his friend who bought him the 
book } yet so anxious was he to keep and conceal it, that to make it less bulky, he had the 
gospels boond in wie v(4ancand the epistles of Paul in another; 9d. was the expense of this 

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palace in Rochester^ and a mansion at Lambeth^ called La Place, 
since annexed to the bishopric of Carlisle. His successor^ Benedict 
(de Sausetun) , was precentor of St. Paul*s, and a treasurer to king John, 
who " destroyed the MSS. carried off the plate and money, and Teft 
not so much as one crucifix standing on the altars in the cathedral." 
Our next prelate was Henry de Sandford, surnamed ^* the great philo- 
sopher*;" he bribed the pope by '' ofiering a ^en^^ of all the goods 
both of the clergy and laity throughout England and Ireland," and 
thus obtained his assistance to Henry III. against the monks of Can- 
terbury. Richard de Wendover was elected by the monks, and after three 
years litigation, much to the interest of the papal court, was finally con* 
firmed in the see. From this period we hear no more of either the monks 
or archbishop of Canterbury having the right to nominate a bishop to 
the see of Rochester. 

We now approach one of the principal epochs in the history of our 
cathedral, the erection of a new and more potent idol during the pre- 
lacy of Laurence de St. Martin. About 1201, William of Perth, a 
Scots baker, having a taste for travelling, determined on making a tour, 
then called a pilgrimage, to Jerusalem. Fortunately this adventurer 
passed by Rochester, accompanied with a servant : how such a person 
could support one we are not told \ but we learn, that either his or some 
other dead body was found in the vicinity of our city, where it was 
alleged that he had been robbed and murdered, and that his servant 
escaped. The monks very humanely interred the corpse, and as it 
was supposed to be that of a holy pilgrim, some mitacles must necessa- 
rily be performed by its grave or tomb ; this was the more natural, 
as incessant warfare had augmented public misery and consequently 
fomented superstition. King John had desolated Rochester, and 
before his devastation could be repaired or forgotten, " Montford 

alteration. Such indeed was the gross ignorance of the monks at the reformation, that all were 
pensioned, except foi^ that remained, and those in the inferior offices of the church, whereas 
eight stalls out of 19 were occupied by the monks at Canterbury, under that great patron of 
learning, Cranmer; and at Norwich five out of six. This is sufficient evidence of the propriety 
of king Henry's general censure of the monks, in the statute said to be written by that great 
monarch himself, in which it is designed, that " the endowment they had so long possessed 
ipight be turned to a better use than they had made of it ; God*s word better set forth j children 
brought up in learning; clerks nourished in the university, and exhibitions for the ministers 
of the church." That this has been amply realized the most impious bigotry, fanaticism, and 
superstition dare not deny. 

* His pretensions to this title may be appreciated from the sermon which he pleached 
before the archbishop and a numerous assemblage of people at Sittingboum. After proceeding 
in his discourse for a time, he suddenly exclaimed in a rapture of joy, " Rejoice in the Lord, 
iny brethren all, and know ye assuredly that of late there departed out of purgatory, Richard, 
some time king of England, Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, and a chaplain of his, 
to go to the divine majesty ; and in that day came forth no more than these three ftom tliat 
place of pains. Fear not to give full and assured faith to these my words, for this is now the 
third time it has been thus revealed to me, and to another man, and that so plainly, as to banish 
all doubt and suspicion firom my mind.** It would not be difficult to cite many iustancei of 
papal preachers disemboguing much greater nonsense even in the present age. 


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A, D.126<>.] KENT. 

earl of Leicester, in 1^64, having burnt the bridge, pasted the river in 
the smoke and confusion, while St. Clare advanced into the city at ano- 
ther quarter. The enemy entered the cathedral on horseback with 
drawn swords (on Good Friday), while the priests and people were 
celebrating the passion of Christ ; and slew many of the monks and 
citizens, and converted this venerable fane to a filthy stable. To repair 
the actual dilapidations was the difficulty; the tomb of the Scots baker 
had attracted the attention of the vulgar. Bishop Laurence instantly 
determined on availing himself of this circumstance, and *' had re- 
course to a stratagem, which appears to have exceeded his most san- 
guine expectations." The offerings made at William's tomb were 
already considerable ; he immediately went to Rome, made a florid re- 
port of miracles, and, without any difficulty, had the name of the 
baker enregistered in the papal pantheon, and his holiness granted in- 
dulgence for offerings *, This manoeuvre effected the reparation of 
<iur dilapidated church. The devotees made pilgrimages to this tomb 
of St. William ; and a chapel, which still bears his name, was appro- 
priated to his worship, and also to receive the oblations of the super- 
stitious multitude at his shrine f. " Here, as ihey say (observes the 
learned Xiambard), shewed he miracles plentifully; but certain it is, 
that madde folkes offered unto him liberally, even until these latter 
times.*' Repairs of the church also began about this period. Ralph 
de Ross, prior in 1199^ commenced covering the cathedral with lead ; 
his successor, Helias, finished it. Mr. Denne (in Cust. Rojf.) conjectures 
that the roof of the building was likewise raised by these priors. 
Helias was considered a person of much influence ; he presented king 
John with a silver cup, value six marks, and gave a horse to the papal 
legate, John de Salerno, worth 50s. '' William de Hoo, sacrist, or 
keeper of the holy things in this church (and who was elected prior 
in 1239), rebuilt X the choir (or rather the chancel) with the oblations 
left at the tomb of St. William. Richard, a monk and sacrist, pro- 
bably successor to de Hoo, built the south aisle of the choir. Richard 
Eastgate, a monk, began the north aisle, and friar William of Axen- 
ham finished it." Such are the brief memorials relative to the archi- 
tectural history of this ancient edifice. It is probable that the transepts 

* We mtist, however, commend the bishop's prudence } for of all the pretended miraclec 
performed at this period, not one of them is recorded, and it is probable he wished not poster}^ 
to have the means of branding his memory with such palpable impostures. 

t "The tomb of St. William is shewn to this day, near the tomb of bishop Merton. It 
consists of a large stone coffin of Petworth marble, the sides and top are decorated with ancient 
ornaments, but no trace of any inscription is now discernible. It was a rich fund of wealth to 
the monks, which continued for almost 300 years.** 

t The expression in the RegUU Roff. is '* Willelmus de Hoo sacrista flecit totum chorum a, 
predictisalisdeoblationibusSancti Willelmi ;** which Mr. Denne thought, with much probability, 
mther implied that the eastern transept had previously existed ; and the circular arches, which 
M^e survived the mania of altenttioS) and ttill exist in it, are demonstrative pnx^ of the fistct. 

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and cboir were altered and vaulted by the persons^ and about the period, 
here specified ; but a very superficial inspection of the walls will be 
sufficient to convince any reasoning observer, that the whole of them 
must have been built either by the Saxons or by Gundulph. Their 
great thickness and present shattered condition tend decidedly to 
prove their Ss^on origin. In almost all parts of the existing edifice 
we can trace remains of Saxon arches, from the east to the west 
end. Over the pointed arch forming the great east window, which has 
eight muUions, the remains of a semi-circular one are very distinct, and 
the eJQfect of this alteration is, that very extensive cracks run through 
the wall of the east end. The west transept is the part which appears 
the most modem, or rather which has been most completely modified*^. 
Part of the crypt, also, has been so altered that an intelligent cotem- 
porary writer f has pronounced it to be the work of de Hoo. On 
the east side of it circular arches still remain, and it is not to be sup- 
posed that such arches would have been constructed at a time when it 
, seemed to be a religious duty to have every thing pointed. It may 
also be observed, as another indication of the great age of this cathe- 
dral, that the surrounding ground, by the gradual accumulation of 
extraneous matter, has considerably risen above the fioor of the nave, 
which is entered by a decent of several steps, and which, if it has not 
remained stationary, could have sunk but very little. The insertions 
of pointed arches in the walls are often very clumsily done, and the 
greater part of them are of the earliest pointed styk which was prac- 
tised in this country. In the interior, like as in Canterbury, it is evi- 
dent that a partiality still prevailed for the old Saxon ornaments :(, 
although the fashion of the day was for acute arched apertures, and 
accordingly we observe the arches generally accompanied with 
)(ig-zag, or other broken, instead of continuous mouldings. Here also, 

* In the north of the building we may obcenre how careieuly the alterations were made, 
hf the appearance of a beautiful column, finely carved with lozenges and other ornaments, and 
laid horizontally in the wall, like any common stone. 

t See Brayley's Beauties of Kent, p. 645. 

t Dacarel acknowledges* in his Norman Antiquities, that the older edifices in that conntiy are 
quite plain, and consequently very diflTerent from Rochester. It appears, indeed, that the Nor- 
mans were nerer veiy distingubhed in this department of art, which seems to have been the 
delight and master-piece of the European peoide who succeeded the Romans and preceded the 
Normans, the Saxons and their congeners. Without wishing to detract in the least from the 
great architectural or ** constructive** talents of Gundulph, it must be admitted that the castle 
of Rochester is beyond all possibility of doubt, a Roman edifice, altered and repaired indeed, 
but still essentially Roman. We have examined the internal structure of its walls wiUi those of 
the tnaiion carree and amphitheatre at Nismes, the ruins of the Gallien palace at Bourdeaux, 
numerous ruins in Italy, &c. and traced an analogy of design and conception \n the execution of 
the work, which could not be accidental. It is admitted, that '* even within the walls of the 
great to^er or keep of Rochester castle itsdf, coins of Vespasian, Trigan, and of the Lower 
Empire, have been found} and in the present ruined walls of the cathedral precinct Roman 
bricks are seen." Can it be supposed that Oundulph, or any of his successors, placed these coina 
here ? Roman urns, vases, piUerte, kc. hove often been dug up in the vicinity, accounts of which 
are to be found in Harris*8 History of KeDt» Thorpe*s Custumale Roffense, &c. 

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A. D. 1316] KENT. 

as at Canterbury^ slender columns of Petworth marble abound ; but 
many of them are in a state of rapid decay, and others have their 
beauties concealed by a coat of lime. 

Having traced the origin and progress of the architectural altera- 
tions in the edifice^ and shewn that they were all much too superficial 
for their extent, and that they contributed materially to impair the 
strength and durability of the walls, we proceed with the history of the 
see and of its ecclesiastical affairs, as they appear in the transactions 
of our prelates to the reformation. If bishop Laurence was successful 
in an expedient to enrich his church, his immediate successor, Walter 
de Merton, was equally so in benefitting society. He was twice chan- 
cellor, *' a munificent patron of this church, obtaining many grants 
in its favour, especially the manors of Cobhamberry and Middleton, 
which were annexed to the episcopate ; but the convent was not 
enriched by him. Bemg a man of discernment, he soon discovered the 
ignorance and hypocrisy of the monks, and from his own experience 
might hope that a revival of letters would expose and overthrow those 
pernicious societies. He accordingly founded a college at the univer- 
sity of Oxford, which beai's his name, and is chiefly supported by this 
prelate's liberal endowments." The members of Merton college"^, said 
to be '^ the first literary community in this kingdom that had the sanc- 
tion of a royal charter,'* still preserve the tomb f of their founder in 
this cathedral with becoming attention. Bishop de Ingle thorp made an 
unsuccessful attempt to claim the xeniumfrom the prior, and his imme- 
diate successor in the see, de Woidhara ; the latter bequeathed ** ten 
marks towards building St. William's tomb in the church of Roches- 
ter, from wliich it appears that this saiiat increased in reputation." 
Prior Haymode Hethe, aspiring to the mitre, at the death of Woldham^ 

* ** It is difficult, says Chalmers, to trace any regular plan of education, tending to that 
general diffusion of learning which now prevails, before the foundation of the first college by 
Walter de Bflerton, whose statutes afford an extraordinary instance of matured system, and 
with very little alteration have been found to accommodate themselves to the progreM of science, 
discipline, and civil economy in more refined ages.** 

t It was originally a marble monument, but perhaps had been injured at the reformation, at 
we find that the present one was erected in 15S8 by Merton college, during the vrardeosbip of the 
celebrated sir Henry Savile, with a suitable inscription, as " maximorum Europae totius ingenio- 
rum fcelidssimo parenti.*' According to Gough, Sepul. Mon. this must have once beep a very 
costly and elegant piece of art, as 402. 5«. 6d. were paid for its enamelled w<Nrk. Enamelling flou- 
rished in the I3th and ISth centuries, particularly at Limoges, in France, and was much used on 
tombs, a practice which pcrbs^smight be worthy of revival. In 1662, it wasag^n repaired l^ sir T. 
Clayton, after the civil war, when even the tomb of one of the greatest benefactors of the human 
race that ever lived, could not escape the '* raUe fiematicorum,*' as the additional inscription happily 
expresses it. In 1770 it was again repaired and relieved from a rude coat of white-wash, applied by 
some modem *' beautifier.*' According to Mr. S. Yate and Mr. A. Wood, this founder's grave was 
opened in 1659, the portraiture of his body was discovered, his person seen to be tall and proper} 
in one hand he had a crosier, which fell to pieces on its being touched, and in the other a silver 
chalice equal to the quarter of a pint. It was sent to the college to be put in the «i*ta joca/nM», 
but by the fellows, in their waX sometimes drinking wine out of it, this valued relic was broken 
and destroyed. 


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and fearifig the influence of two competitors, privately sent for tbc 
monks of Walton in Suffolk, a cell dependent on the priory of St. An- 
drew, and succeded in carrying his election by a ms^ority of twenty- 
six out of thirty, five monks which were present. But another and still 
greater obstacle arose, the monks, in obtaining their emancipation 
jfrom the control of Canterbury, soon found that they had only re- 
moved their vassalage thence to the papal couf t. Almost three years 
elapsed before thb able and worthy prelate could procure his confirma- 
tion, " under a fictitious plea that the pope (John XXI I .) out of his pa- 
temal care had provided a successor.** Edward 11 . and his queen Isabella, 
having taken opposite sides^ the former favouring Haymo and the latter 
her confessor^ the pope gladly embraced the opportunity of filling his 
own coffers 5 and Haymo*s journey to Avignon, to be consecrated, 
cost him in fees to his holiness above 1441 florins. This sum* was 
more than one year's income f of his bishopric, and he was obliged to 
give security for its payment before he obtained the usual bulls from the 
pope. He and prior Shepey, his successor, in 1343, raised the tower of 
the cathedral with stone and wood, covered it with lead, and placed four 
bells in it, called Dunstan, Paulin, Ithamar, and Lanfranc. The follow* 
ing year he caused the shrines of St. Michael, PauKnus, and Ithamar, 
to be repaired with marble and alabaster, at an expense of 200 marks, 
having previously devoted 1 100 marks to build a refectory. He also 
built and endowed an hospital for the poor of both sexes (who had 
once been affluent, and not reduced by their vices), at Uethe, now 
Hythe, his native town, on tbe site of his paternal mansion. Lastly, 
to close his munificence to the ihonks, he offered at the high altar the 
georgeous mitre of Thomas Becket, which he had purchased from 
the executors of the bishop of Norwich, and founded a chantry for 
two priests to officiate at the altar near the shrine of the Scots 
baker. Becoming old and infirm, he wished to retire, but was not 

♦ The florin being St. It amounted to upwards of ftlSI. The worthy prelate being to embar- 
rassed that he could not support his servanu, the clergy of his diocess (as a proof of his merit and 
their liberality) supplied him with prorisions and money, to the extent of \9d. in every mark of 
the annual value of their benefices. It was 18 months before he could pay the papal exactions. 

t •* The diocess of Rochester is the smallest in the kingdom, the whole of it being situated 
in the western division of Kent. It has one archdeacon and 99 parishes included in the dean- 
cries of Rochester, Mailing, and Dartford, as that of Shoreham belongs to Canterbury. This 
bishopric is distinguished not only by the narrowness of iU district, but likewise for the slen- 
demess of its revenues. Before the conquest they were not sufficient maintenance for the bishop 
and four or five secular priests. Gundulph enriched the priory but impoverished the see. In 
bishop Fisher's time the income amounted only to 500(. } in the king's books it is valued at 
358*. 4«. 9^. and like many other ecclesiastical benefices, was then most probably over-rated. 
In 1559 it did not exceed fi07<> per ann. ; and at present it is about 600I. clear yearly value, not. 
withstanding whkh, many of the bishops of this diocess may, with great truth, be said to have 
been inferior to few of their brethren in abilities or learning, and several of them have enjoyed 
the highest posts both in church and state." Hasted's Kent, iv. 111. This revenue, particularly 
when svAjected to an oppressive income tax, is not equal to the simple interest of the money 
necessary to educate, support, and qualify a gentleman until he attains the episcopal age, 


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A. D. 1524.] KENT. 

permitted. His immediate successors were less distingiushed cha- 

John Tlsber, a lettered higot, was said^ perhaps erroneously^ to 
assist Henry VHI. in writing against Luther ; " he countenanced the 
maid of Kent in her imposture/* opposed Wobey^ refused to sanction 
Henry's marriage with Ann Boleyn^ and finally defended the pope*s 
supremacy. He was imprisoned in 1534 as a rebels for which the pope 
sent him a cardinal's hat ; but the king, ever prompt and decisive, 
ordered judgment to proceed, and the head of Fisher, as a traitor f , 
was placed on London Bridge, in June 1535, before the cardinars 
hat could reach it. His successor, Hilsey, was favourable to the refor- 
mation, and Burnet has recorded his preaching and exposing, at St. 
PauPs Cross, the fraudulent tricks with images practised in religious 
houses, particularly the '' crucifix of Boxley, in Kent,** called, " the 
road of grace,** &c. Such was the servile state of our church and see 
previous to the happy reformation, when in April 1540, the priory 
(valued at j^486 : 15 : 5), was dissolved, and in June 1542, the new 
establishment was incorporated under the title of " The Dean and 
Chapter of the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
of Rochester {.*' 

We have now to take a survey of the interior of this ancient 
edifice in its present condition. The west front has been the admiration 
of all persons of taste during many centuries ; it is to be regretted that 
the destructive, and we fear irremediable, influence of the atmosphere 
(assisted by blind zeal), has rendered it almost a splendid ruin of ancient 
art. The great doorway was formed hy a series of nine small columns 
on the north and eight on the south side, two of which were carved 

* BUhop Wellyt or Wellt, indeed, thought il; a kind of idolatiy in monks to have any 
private property, and to deter them from this heinous offence, ordered, that if any monk was 
found possessed of personal property when dying, he shoold be denied the privilege of burial 
among his brethren, and also their oblations and prayers. 

f- This may be considered the first act of English national independence j as daring many 
centuries the king and legislature of Britain had not, properly speaking, any law to punish dig- 
nitaries of the church without some papal sanction. Had justice been executed at any time on 
men who were truly minbtersof the pope, but not of God, nor subjects of the king, this base- 
bom upstart would have hurled his then appalling anathemas at the devoted heads of all thos« 
who assisted on such occasion, or perhaps Icdd an interdict on the whole kingdom, and excited 
the flames of domestic war. The foreign dignity of cardinal conferred on Fisher, was a proof of 
English dependence, which no truly English heart could brook for a moment, under any pretext 
whatever. At present, no British subject dare accept even the nominal honour of knighthood 
from any foreign state, without previously receiving his majesty's permission, and the most 
callous bigot or superstitious devotee roust acknowledge the wisdom and justice of this law. 

t The estates of the dissolved priory of St. Andrew were vested in the new protestant insti- 
tution, oonsbting of " a dean, six prebendaries, six minor canons, a deacon and sub-deacon 
(both <JUsused since the reformation, as well as the gospeller and epistoler), six lay clerks, a 
master of the eight choristers, an upper and under master of the grammar school, so scholars, 
■Is poor bedesmen (now always wounded seamen), a porter, who was also to be barber, and a 
Sutler, with two cooks ;'* the two latter offices are disused, as nq common table is kept. 
The prebendaries execute in rotation the offices of vice-dean, receiver, and treasurer, and the 
minor canons those of precentor and sacrist. The dean and chapter have also a chapter-clerk, 
nnditor, collector of the quit-rents, and a steward Qf their courts, who is likewise counsellor. 

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into Statues^ supposed to be of Henry I. and bis queen Matilda. TbeiP 
capitals^ as well as tbe whole recess of this Saxon arcb^ are finely de- 
corated with heads^ twisted branches^ flowers^ &c. on tbe centre is a 
figure^ but whether designed for St. Andrew or the Saviour cannot 
now be determined. In all the various compartments of this front and 
its towers, we observe remains' of roses, lozenges, &c. sculptured. 
On descending into the nave * the massy columns, huge circular arches, 
tbe elegant triforium, tbe walls decorated with fret-work, wreaths, 
crosses, &c. and tbe more modern flat clerestory windows f , exhi- 
bit the various gradations of taste in different ages. The choir, which 
is " plainly neat,'* is entered by a flight of steps under the great tower, 
(the steeple of which was repaired and leaded in 1749)^ and is orna- 
mented like the other parts of the edifice, with slender columns of 
Petworth marble. It is said to have been first used at the conse- 
cration of bishop Sandford iu 1227. In 1743 it was repaired at a con- 
siderable expense, receiving new wainscot % stalls, pews, &c. and was 
handsomely paved with Bremen and Portland stone. In 1791 a very fine 
new organ was built by Green, the original one, which was called " an 
old instrument'* in 1668, being entirely decayed. The disposition of this 
cathedral is different from almost all others in England, although it 
is furnished with two transepts. Here we find no lady chapel at the 
east end, nor any tradition of its ever having existed there. It is pro- 
bable, from the directions of Haymo, for two priests to pray for the 
souls of himself and his successors at the altar where the mass of the 
virgin was celebrated, near St. William's tomb, that the worship of 
the Perth baker had completely superseded that of Mary, and that her 
chapel soon became William's. At the south-east side of the 
nave, however, is a spacious, but comparatively modem chapel 
(prior to the. dissolution used as the chapel of the infirmary) ,- 
dedicated to Mary, part of which is now occupied by the consistory 
court. Opposite the entrance to this chapel, and on the east side 
of the south end of the western transept, is a strong apartment, having, 
only one window, which was formerly used as a " safe*' for all tb6 
valuables belonging to the altars in this part of the cathedral, but now 
degraded into a receptacle for fuel. On the south side of the choir is 
St. Edmund's chapel. In its south wall are marks of a door which 

* At the bottom of the steps is a large stone having an episcopal effigy, supposed to be designed 
by Gundttlph for Tobias. In the middle of the nave also, near tbe part with pointed arches, to 
a coarse flat stone, having the iBgure of an ax, supposed to be for a memorial of Fisher» who wat 

t It appears that all the windows were not completed or glazed in 1447* as a countiy-irtcar 
that year was ordered, by way of penance, to glaze one at his own expense. Very little painted 
glass was ever used here, and ttom a very sufficient cause— the cathedral being so coi^igvoui ta 
a sea-port, where cannon are fired, and the windows are consequently often b)»kcii« 

t Archbishop Herring, when dean, gave 60L to ornament the altar* 

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A.D. 1808. J KENT. 

probably opened into an apartment adjoining the dormitory^ called 
the excubitorium, where the porter watched and called up the monks 
to their nocturnal devotions. On the north side of this chapel^ in the 
wall of the choir> is the recumbent effigy of a bishop, supposed to be 
the monument of John de Bradfield. On its east side is the entrance 
to the crypt and the vestry of the minor canons. Advancing eastward, 
is the library and chapter-house, near the entrance of which are two 
broken tombs of bishc^s. On the south side of the chancel, and near 
the altar, are the remains of three rich pointed arches, called the confes- 
sional, but more properly.altar-seats ; near this are the reputed tombs of 
bishop Gundulph and Inglethorpe. On the north side of the altar are 
the tombs of Glanvill and St. Martin. The north end of the eastern 
transept has been generally called the chapel of St. William, which 
also extends to the north aisle of the choir. The stone steps, which 
lead thence to the western transept, bear physical evidence of the great 
multitude which formerly visited this chapel. On the north side of 
the edifice, between the western and eastern transept, is that vast, 
massy, square pile of building, called Gundulph*s tower, generally 
believed to be designed for a bell tower (by some conjectured to be for 
a treasiU7), for which it seems well qualified ; its walls are six feet 
thick, and its internal area is twenty- four feet on ^ach side. The 
crypt, which formerly contained nine altars and richly- painted walls, 
now presents scarcely a vestige of its ancient grandeur. Of the other 
monuments in this cathedral, their situation will be found in the 
ground-plan ; but of more than ninety prelates who have filled this 
see, the names of only twenty- three are recorded as being deposited 
in their cathedral, and even of these, the monuments of only four can 
be satisfactorily ascertained, namely, Merton, Bradfield, Lowe, and 
Warner, the latter being ever memorable as the beneficent founder 
of Bromley college for poor clergymen's widows. 

Our first protestant prelate was Dr. Nicholas Heath, and from 
him to the present day, perhaps no other see in England can exhibit such 
a diversity of moral and intellectual character in the series of its prelates 
and deans *. We had Christian martyrs ; a bigotted and ruthless as- 
sassinf ', others who thought of nothing but Christian charity ^ divines 

* A welUmerited tribute to the literary pitrauits of the late Dr. Dampier, who wm 90 year* 
4ean, six bishop of Rochester, and about three of Ely, from the cle§:ant pen of the rev. Mr. 
T. F. Dibdin, appears in his BibUoth. Spencer, Bishop Dampier was educated at Eton, and 
( afterwards at King's college j was tutor to the present lord Guildford and his brothers. " He was," 
lays our correspondent, ** a strenuous and watchful guardian of the church of England, whose 
doctrines and discipline he thoroughly understood ; and being discreet, dignified, and mild in 
the discharge of his episcoped functions, not less to be regretted as a friend and supporter of 
the estabtishraent, than as a brother, husband, and friend." We could say more of his talenU 
and virtues did our limits permit it. 

• t Who burnt Dr. Rowland Taylor, prebendary ; J. Harpole, of Rochester; Joan Beach, of 
Tnnbridge; C. Wade and Margery Polly, at Dartford % but Mr. Wood, baker, in Strood, provi* 
dentially escaped his murderous bands. 


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who embellished the precepts of morality with the finest poetical fancy ; 
and a demagogue^ for whose ambition or vanity it is impossible to have 
any other sentiment than the roost sovereign contempt. But all the 
black crimes of a Gryffith^ or demerits of an Atterbury^ are happily 
lost in the ne^er- ending splendour of a Sprat^ a Pearce, a Dampier^ or 
a Horsley ! It was bishop Sprat who first announced^ in his interest* 
ing and eloquent " History of the Royal Society/' the important truths 
*' that a higher degree of reputation is due to discoverers, than to the 
teachers of speculative doctrines^ nay, even to conquerors themselves/' 
and hence the superiority of our manufactures, agriculture, and 
commerce ', hence the causes which have made Britain the school ot 
the civilized world. It was bishop Horsley, who, while he applied 
reason and logic to the higher mathematics and physical sciences, ex- 
posed the ignorance and vain dogmatism of the would-be sect-founder, 
the superficial Joseph Priestley ; and, witl^ a force of eloquence and 
argument rarely combined, defended the ground- work of all Christian 
faith, and shewed scepticism to be as devoid of common sense as unita« 
rianism is of reason or philosophy. The legislature has decreed, and 
no doubt deservedly, monuments and honours to our heroes and con- 
querors I but justice is even-handed to all ; and the benefactor of his 
country and of his species has an equal claim to public gratitude in 
whatever manner he may exercise his talents. 


External LENGTH, from buttress to buttress, 335 feet. Internal, SIO, of the nave 150, choir, 
^om tlie screen, 150; of the western transept, 1S3, ot the eastern ditto 99 feet. BUEADrHof 
the nave and choir, 32 feei; ditto with aisles 08; of the west front 81 fret. HEIGHT of the 
cieliiig 55 feet, of the tower and spire 156^ of Gundulph's tower about 95 feet. ^ 


Plate 1. A distant View of the Cathedral, shewing the South Transept, and part of the Nave and 
Choir. On the right, in front, is the house appropriated to the master of the free-school } the 
small pointed door on the left leads to Dr. Strahan's house. The gateway in front is generally 
called the canons* gate. 

PUue S. The West Front, shewing the ancient Saxon Door, the great West Window, with the 
finely ornamented Towers that flank it. The church of St. Nicholas appears in the distance. 

Plate S. An elegant Door leading to the Ante«room of the present Chapter-house, which contains 
the Library. This door is most exquisitely wrought with flowers and figures under rich cano- 
pies; those in the head of the arch represent angels, or departed spirits, bound and suffiering 
the torments of fire. 

Kate 4. A View of the Cathedral firom the N. W. j shewing part of the Nave, the great North 
Transept, and, beyond it, the Remains of 6undulph*s Tower. Part of St. Nicholas Church 
forms the fore-ground on the left) in the distance is an arched way, leading to the deaaeiy. 

Plate 5, A View of the South-eastern Transept, and the present Chapter- house, which Is alow 
modem Room i on the extremity to the right appears the richly ornamented Windows of the 
ancient Chapter-house and Cloister. The view is taken ttom prebendary Strahan's garden. 

Plate dy Shews the Cathedral from the South-eastern Transept to its West End} the dwelling 
house on the left belongs to Dr. Strahan, from whose garden this view is likewise taken. 

Plate Ty Is from the Interior of the Chancel, and shews the South-east Transept and lu Aisle, 
and Part of the Choir; the Episcopal Throne, erected at the expense of bishop Wilcock*s, 
appears at the comer of the Choir. 

Plate 8. An Interior View, taken firom the Stepa leading to the Choir; here is teen the N. W» 
transept, part of the ancient nave, and iu two pointed axchee of later date. 


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•«* The italic Uttert indicate ike paget marked at ike bottom of tke left tidef 
tkus^ {a) (b) ^c. and the letter N. for note. 

AngutUn, how received at Rochester, • N.— 
Andrew, St. church named after, b } cauae of 
this name not being changed, ib. N. ; rebuflt, 
c.<— Athdstan gave the privilege of coining to 
the bp. C}— Arches, circular, still extant, <N. j 
not ornamented by the Normans, ik N.— 
Avignon, expenses at the papal court <^, ss.— 
Arts and sciences cultivated by the bishops, q. 
•-ABhcnde*s grant to Gundttlph, 4 N^— Aisle, 
north, built, i; south ditto, ib.^--AtteTfottry, a 
£(mtempttble demagogue, p. 

Brituh name of Bochester, • N.— Benedic- 
thies forcibly placed in St. Andrew's prioiy, e. 
—Bartholomew's hospital for lepers, « K.— Ba- 
ker, a Scots one, became avalu^le idol to the 
monksyib; one in Strood escaped bp. GiyiBth*s 
Are and faggot,pN.— Becket's mitre,iii.— Burn- 
ing of the priory and city, not mentioned in 
Seg. Roff./N. I of the protestants,|) N.— Bish- 
ops,li8tof,r.— Bells named,m.— Bradfleld,tomb 
of, ^.—Books, present of, g"S.i persecution 
9i, lb.— Bedesmen, wounded seamen, «N. 

Christianity promulgated in Bochester be- 
f<M« Augustin,a; rapid progress of, ib. ; mar- 
tyrs to, p N«-<:at]Mdral first built, b} often 
desolated by enemies, ib. i why dedicated to 
8t. Andrew, ib. N. j said to be rebuilt by Oun- 
dulpb, d; but more probably by Ethelred, d, 
e, 2c N. J alterations of, i ; lights in,/; shrines 
in, mi particular character and actual con- 
dition of, « & o } new establishment of, ib. 
N.— Chapter-house, ancient, built, « & pi. ft. 
—City burnt, /N.—Canterbuiy, archbp. and 
monks of, nomhiate bishops ^of Rochester, /. 
—Cloister built, jf.— Choir, or chancel, built, 
i k pi. 7.— CasUe of Rochester, Roman, k N. 
—Coins, Roman, found, ib. — Crypt modern- 
ized, but still has some round arches, lb.*~ 
Coal-hole, O} see j;round-plan.— Concubine, 
ancient meaning of, cN.— Commerce encou- 
raged by our prelates, 9.— Cardinal, a badge of 
foreign dependance, « N.— Chalice,' Merton's, 
broken, I N.— Columns, ornamented, built in 
the wall, k N.— Cloistered persons malign, g. 

Danes, their incessant ravages, 6, c— Dam- 
1^, bp. his character, p N.— Denne, Mr. states 
Xanfranc's partiality to St. Andrew, fr N. } as- 
signs the true era of building the present ca- 
thedra], « N. ; supposes the roof to be raised, 
i', and the eastern transept an original build- 
ing, ib. N.— Delce, lands at, eN.— Dimensions 
of the cathedral, 9.— Ducarel on Norman anri- 
quities, IrN.— Discoverers, next to divines, the 
greatest benefoctors to society, 9.— Deans, list 
of, r.— Door-way of chapter, pi. S.— Dibdln« 
rev. Mr. p. 

Etymology of Rochester, a N.— Ethdbert 
founds a cathedral, b; motive for iu dedica- 
tion, ib. N.— Ethelred plunders the chur<;h, b 
&c; repents and rebuilds it, d &«.— Educa- 
tion, plan of, by bp. deMerton,! N.— Edmund's 
chapel, o.— Enamelling, origin and use o^ iN. 
— Bamulph, bp. historian and builder, e. ' 

Fires,/.— Fanatic madness, <N.— Fisher, bp. 
a tool of the pope, beheaded, n. 

Oundulph consecrated, c} foBciUy disinhe- 
rits tlie secular canons, ib.} his fortune fore- 
told by loto drawn out of the Bible, ib. N. 1 re- 

paired the cathedral, lb. } an architect but nat 
adivine, dj notreally the architect of the ca- 
thedral, Ib. I his artifices to enrich his prioiy,' 
Ib. N. } his xeniom, «; founder of an hospital 
and nunnery, but not alwajrs successftd in dup- 
ing persons of their property, ib. N. } lus dia- 
racter by Lambard, lb. ; did not build the keep 
ofthecastle^ kN.} tosaboi; sec groond-plaB, 
his tofwer, ^.— Otanvill, his eftwto to crash 
monkery,/&/| his liberaUty, lb. - Ood wins, 
bps.rebuUders of the cathedral, d^-«T«en built 
the organ, o.— Grammar school founded, a If . 

Hoo, W. de,rebuilt the choir, {.— HeUas, pri- 
or, leaded thecatbedrd, ib.— Baymo de Hethe, 
bp. orders soo prayers, g N. } expenses of his 
papal confirmation, m k N.; built the tower 
and put bdls In it, lb.; founded an hospital 
for reduced persons, ib. } ordered prayers for 
his soul, o.— Hilsey, bp. finroured the reforma- 
tion, «.— lIorsley,bp. a philosopher and divine, 
extends science, and defends Christianitj 
againstJoseph Priestley, 9. 1 merits a national 
memorial, lb.— Heniy YlII.'s just censure of 
the monks, k N«— Horses, price of, « N.— Herw 
ring, ardibp. repain altar, N. 

Justus, a Roman missionary, first bp. of Ro- 
chester, bi first English prelate firom whom 
the pope demanded obedience, ib.— Images, 
dress of, bumt,/N.— Idol made of a corpse and 
tomb, JL— Ithamar, shrine of, s»<— Idolatry, a 
N.} singular kind of, a K. — Independence, 
English national, first instance of, a N. 

King John plunders the cathedral, k.— Ky- 
neferde, bp. allowed to coin money, c— Kent, 
a county of philosophers and heroes, g N. 

Lambard, the most judicious etymologist, 
a N. } his character of Gundulph, <; and of 
William's miracles, ij'patronixesand aids Gun- 
dulph, c & d.— Laurence, bp. erecuthe tomb 
of the supposed Perth baker into an idol, k it •• 
—Lot, c N.— Lady-chapel, none here, o. 

Mailing granted to bp. Burrhic, «} nunnery 
at, « N.— Man-milliner to the Virgin Mary, of- 
ficer of, /N.— Malelde, precentor, persecuted 
for having a translation of the Testament, g 
N.— Michael, St. shrine of, «».— Mary, wor- 
ship of, never successful in Bochester, o.— Mo- 
numents, I N. it p.— Martyrs, protestant,p N. 

Oxford, Merton college In, I, 

Popes* exacu obedience, Ib. N.— Ptediiras, 
shrine of, melted by the m^ks,g} repai/^ 
«».— Fetworth marble, o.— Pearce, bp. a class!- 
cal writer, p.— Plates,description of,^.— Priori, 
list of, r.— Purgatory, souls escaped from, h N. 

Bochester, castle of, only repaired by Gun- 
dulph, k N. } diocess very saiall, m N.— Reve- 
nue, episcopal, very inadequate, m N.— Refor- 
mation and new establishment, a N. . 

Saxon ardies aikd ornaments in the church, 
k k N.— Sprat, bp. an elegant writer, g.— Sand- 
ford, bp. his curious revelation andsermon,AN. 

Tobias, bp. built St. Paul's porch, b-, sup- 
posed efligy of, o N.— Taylor, dr. R. bumt,pN. 

William I.his legacy ,dN.— William of Perth, 
fable of, h} hU miracles, icc.i&N.| his cha- 
pel, 0) wOTship of, supertedea that of Maiy» 
lb.— WUliam,of Axenham buUt thealtle,t. 

Xenittoii what, e. 

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See Vacant Five Yeart 

PutU 669 

See FacoHt. 

{Juichelm 676 

Gtsbmund 681 

Tobiat 693 

Aldulph 787 

Dun or Duina 741 

Eardulph 747 

Dioran or Dior« 778 

Wermund 788 
Beornmod or Beoro- 

red 800, 

Tadnoth 841 

Godwyn I. 831*851 

Cutbwolf 868 

Swithulf 880 

Buiric 898 

Chineferth or Kyneferde 

Burrhic 945 

Alfttane 955 

Godwyn II. 985 
Godwyn IIL 

See Vacant 

Siward 1058 

Emost or Araott 1076 

Gunduiph 1077 


Ordowia 1089 

Earoulph IO90 

Ralph 1115 
Ordowio (restored) 

Brian 1145 

Kec:inald 1154 
Earnulpb II. 
IV m. de Borstalle 

Silvester 1177 

Alfred 1182 

Oftbert de Lepella 1 189 

Ralph de Ross 1199 



Rodolph or Ralph 1 108 
Earnulph 1115 

John 1125 

John, bishop of Say 1137 
Ascelin 1 142 

Walter 1147 

GauleranorWaleranl 182 
Gilbert de Glanvill 1185 
Benedict 1215 

Henry de Sandford 1227 Wendover 1235-8 St. Martinu 1251 
Walter de Merton 1274 
John de Bradileld 1278 
Thos. de Inglethorp 1283 
Tho8>deWuldhaiD 1291 
HaymodeHethe 1316-9 
John de Shepey 1352 
William Wittlesey i36l 
Thos. Trilleck 1364 

Thos. Brinton 1372 

Will, de Bottlesham 1389 
J. de Bottlesham 1400 
Richard Youngs 1404-7 
John Kemp 1419 

John Lan^on 1421-2 
Thomas Browne 1435 
W. Wellys 1436 

John Lowe 1444 

T. Seat (ofRotber* 

ham) 1468 

John Alcock 1472 

John Rassel 1476 

Edmund Audley 1480 



William 1222 

R. de. Derente 1225 

Will, de Hoo 1239 

Alex, de Glanville 1250 

John de Rcnham 1252 

Thos. de Woldham 1283 

Simon deClyve 129I 

Renham (restored) 1292 

T. de Shuldeford 1294 
John de Greenstreetl301 

HamodeHethe 1314 
John de Westerham 1320 

John de Spedhurst 1321 

lliomas Savage 149S 
R. Pit^ames 1497 

John Fisher 1504 

John Hilsey 1535 

Nicholas Heath' 1540 
Henry Holbeach 1544 
Nicholas Ridley 1547 
John Poynet orPonfttl550 
John Scory 1551 

Vaeamt Three Year; 
Maurice Gryffith 1554 
Edm. Allen (elect.) 
Ed. Gheast or Guest 1 559 
Edm.Freake 1571 

John Piers 1576 

JohnYonje 1577 

WilUam Barlow 1605 
Rich. Neile 1609 

John Buckeridi^ 1610-1 
Walter Curie 1628 

John Bowie 1629 

John Warner 1637 

John Dolbeu 1666 

Francis Turner 1683 
Thos. Sprat 1684 

P. Atterbury (exiled 

in 1723) 1713 

Samuel Bradford 1 723 
Jos. Wilcocks 1731 

Zachary Pearoe 1756 
John Thomas 1774 

Samuel Horsley 1793 
Thomas Dampier 1802 
Walkbk Kino 1809 

John de Shepey 1333 

Rob. de Suthflete 1362 

John de Hertlesse 1361 

John de Shepey 1380 

W. deTunbrigi^ 1419 

John Clyfe 1447 

John Cardone 1448 

William Wode |465 

Thomas Bournis 1480 

William Bishop 1496 

Will. Frysell 1509 
Laurence Merewoth 1533 
W^Buxley or Philips 

Walter Philips 


Edmund Freake 


T. Willourhby 
John Coldwell 



Thos. Blague 


R. Milbourne 


Robert Scott 


Godfrey Goodman 


W. BalcanqueU 


Henry Kiog 




Thomas Turner 


W. Barnard 1743 

Belli. Laney 
N. Hardy 


John Newcome 1744 


W. Markham 1765 

Peter Mew, 


Benj Newcome 1767 

Thos. L^midugh 


Tho«.Thurlow 1775 

John Castilion 


Richard Gust 1779 

Henry Ullock 


Thos. Dampier 1782 

Samuel Pratt 


Samuel Gaodenoughl802 



W.B£aubiontBusby 1808 

Thos. Herrins 


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Sfiewxn^ tht groining t^'the Root 

Z-6rett Weft Di>or.-, 

S-JV^WUmtr. - 

^.S.WD^..... - 

S-Fant. - 

6- JSbre ani Side AisUs. 

I.Dsme Maacihers Tem^ 

8-Zari jrSmvOlors 2Jf 

9 fnBiarys Chspel - - 

10_ Canristiry Court. 

n. _ Cottr« cf the jreac Ibwef. . - 

Z?_ Wartvri, transept.. - 

15-l^arth mOvnae. 

lA-Srarance to Choir, . . 

JS.DT Ckasars Tomi.. - 

lfi_ JTZJmunds Chapel 

11- Wty to «*5 (Typt.. 

2S^jS£ihor Canons Testr^ 

19- Ourir. 


Zl _ Sf^Ifirone 

»_J7»SZMm/ Chapd 

Z3-Ibmi ofB? Walter de .Mrdah. 
Z^Jastem transept. — . 
25-J3^Za^es Torni. - 

Zg_JB^ Warner's Umi. 

tj_ ^/^<^-J>ea£4m, Wbmer's D.i... 
Zd -Stone -^Shrine of FmJams 

Z9- (yiapter Souse. 

iOSrvlrance to Df 

51- Chancel 

5t.3^ ^lannOes Tomd. 

y5-Bf LanTT-moe D' 

34._3f ZnfiUthorpe D". - - 

3iLS^ Gundulph 2)'. . . 


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The diocess of Salisbury h of great antiqaity^ and most probably 
derived its origin from the primitive British Christians. The first see 
was at *' Shirebame/' after the tonsure controversy had subsided. Ina, 
king of the West Saxons (whose excellent code of laws has been pre- 
served to the present day), feelbg the necessity of reidlering his sub- 
jects truly religious, resolved to increase the number of bishops. After 
the death of Hedda, bishgp of Winchester, about 702. he divided that 
see into two bishoprics, ,and selected Sherbom for the see of the 
new diocess, which was to extend over the couigies now called Dorset, 
Wilts, Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall. The pious add learned AW- 
helm or Adelrae, said to be king Ina's nephew, and by Capgravc his 
son, was appointed the first bishop of 705. The talents, 
learning, and virtues of this prelate were well calculated to give im- 
portance to his see, and shed a lustre on the holy religion which he 
professed*. Unfortunately he lived to occupy it only four years, 
and was suc^eded by Fordhere. A succession of respectable prelates f 

* We paM oxer the ridicaloo* mindet of lengthening timbcr-beamf, kc. awribed to Aid- 
helm, to notice hl» ftyle, which i» happily cliaracteriaeH by M^lniesbury, in a manner worthy 
a modem and philoiophical critic : his writing*, obwnrei thi» learned monk, •* have lew lif eli- 
ness in them than required by critici, who estimate ityle highly, but set little value upoQ 
•en»e: unreasonable judges, not knowing that the modes of writing tary with the manners of 
nations, as the Oreeks are wont to write with a closeness •f language, the Komans withm splen« 
dour of diction, and the EngUsh with a pomp of words. In all the ancient charters we may 
perceive how much delight is uken in certain abstruse words derived from the Or***' AJd- 
hclm, however, acted with more moderation ; he used exotic word* only -seldom, and of necea- 
sity, introducing his sound sense In the garb of eloquence, an<t decorating his most ^^^^ 
assertions with the colours of rhetoric j so that, on a full consideration of him, you would at 
once thinlc him to be a%reek from his smartness of «yle, swear him to be a Roman by hit 
neatness of Sicrion, and understand him to be an Englishman from his pomp of ''**''**r* 

t Amoijg them Ealkstan or Alfstan is distinguished as a great vrarrior, who conquered the 
kingdoms of Bent and of the East Saxons for Egbert, fighting always victoriously against the 
Danes, or whoever opposed him. Godwin sayj that he basely set up Ethelbald against his fk- 
ther Ethelwolf, and obfiged the latter to divide the kingdom with his son. This is a serious 
charge j yet when we remember that the deceased Athelsun (according to Whilaker, this 
prince had only tttmed hermit, and vras called St."Neot), a natural son of ^thelwolf, had pre- 
viously enjoyed the same power, instead of tensuring the bishop we should rather appUud 
blm for exalting the ren>ecUbility of a legitimate son, and thereby marking his attention t» 
moral character. It b said, that he held this lee tfly years, Aaser, another bishop of thU see. 


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filled this see till 898, when it remained vacant seven yean. Edward 
the Elder having obtained absolute possession of the throne, deter- 
mined to improve the religions state of his people, which had saflfered 
much by the Danbh invasions, and with Plegmund, archbishop of 
Canterbury (and formerly divinity-reader to king Alfred), called a 
synod, in which it was decreed that the province of the West Saxons 
should be divided into seven bishoprics *. The good archbishop, aboat 
905, accordingly consecrated bishops for Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, 
and Wilts, in addition to those previously established. The see of Wilts 
was occasionally at Sunning and Ramsbury, but chiefly at Wilton. It 
had ten bishops ; Hermann de Lotharingia was the eleventh, when the 
see of Sherbom becoming vacant, he united it to Wilton. The con- 
duct of this prelate, who was a native of FUnders, and chaplain to 
Edward, exhibits a curious mixture of caprice and ambition. Al- 
though raised to rank and honour, he became discontented, petitioned 
the king, and had almost obtained the removal of his see from WiltOQ 
to Malmesbury. The abbot and monks strenuously opposed the mea- 
sure, and engaged earl Godwin to prevent it in the cabinet council • 
The haughty Fleming then pettishly resigned, or rather abandoned (in 
1055 Bromton, 1050 Higden) his episcopal charge, went to the con- 
tinent, and became a monk of St. Bertin, where he remained three years. 
Time, however, and an ascetic life, soon brought him to reason f • 

who, according to Godwin and Isaacson, was consecrated in 879» and died in 889, has heen mp* 
posed to be the same as Asser, archbishop of St. David's, who was consecrated in g05 or 909* 
This Welsh prelate was certainly the author of Alfred's life { and the Annals, pablished ia Ma 
name, iii which a sentence occurs, stating that an Asser, bishop of Sherbom, died in g09« 
** The mention of his death in kii own Annals,** obsenres Wliitaker, Life of St. Neot, " proffct 
that Asser undeniably not to be himself.*' Nevertheless Stevens, in his additions to the Mo- 
naiticon, Dr. John Smith, appendix to Bede's Eccle. Hist, and many other writers, veiy impro-> 
bably pretend that it is the same person, the bishop of Shelbom and the atfnalist. Godwin, 
with more probability, mentions 4he opinion that the former was chancellor to the latter, 
and that they were relations. It is however very incredible that our Asser lived till 909k at 
Swithelm succeeded him in 8S4, and afterwards travelled into the East, where the apostU 
Thomas had preached the gospel, and brought thence many precious stones. He was succeeded 
in 889 by Ethelwald, or Ethelward, a younger son of king Alfred. Asser Menevensis appears by 
his Annals to have lived to 914. The Wilton prelate, Brithwold, is also mentioned by Malmea* 
bury, %i redeeming some lands froi|f the crown for Glastonbury abbey, when the sum stipu- 
lated being deficient a penny (o6oIk«}, he " magnificently threw his own ring into the mass, 
after exhibiting the workmanship upon it, to shew his zeal for the abbey." 

* Malroesbury says, quinque qtiicopot pro duobuM faeere, only five bishoprics, made out of 
two J but he omits t(v mention that Sussex now formed a part of the West Saxon territories, 
and that Chichester should have been included. He gives Athelm or Adelme to Wells, Edulf 
to Crediton, Athelstan to Cornwall, Fid^tan or Frithstan to Winchestir, and Werstan to Sher- 
bom, but overlooks the appointment of Ethelstane to Wilton ; whicl^ either toolkplace at the 
same time, or very shortly after, although Warton says in 910. 

t The manner in which this effect is expressed by an abbot, clearly shews what were the 
feelings of monks in all ages, and how absurd were their pretensions to contentment, which is 
a necessary precursor to all pious duties. ** Sed (observes Bromton, writing from personal ex- 
perience and observation), ut iope fit in talibys, repentino impetu religionis ./r^gr^tceiUe, Her- 
mannus rediit.'* After stating this usual and natural consequence, the cooling of A rellgiona 
fit, he relates the causes abovementioned, which contributed to bring this worthless prelate to 
our country again. Aldred, bishop of Worcester (who was translated jto York), managed the 
concerns of his bishopric during his absence. Some authors, and among them the writer of 

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A. D. 1075*} WILTSHIRE. 

Accustomed to the luxuries of a court, aod the obseiittious attention 
of flatterers, the homely familiarity of a foreign convent were not 
well adapted to soothe his perturbed mind. The report, it is said, of 
Godwin's death * having also reached him, he no longer hesitated in 
returning to England. Again possessed of his bishopric, and £lfwold 
bishop of Sherborn dying f, he claimed the royal promise to unite 
Wilton and that see. This fmnished him with a change. Wilton, 
however, for amenity of situation, well deserved the honours it en- 
joyed of being a royal burgh and a regal residence {. But Sherborn 
was doomed to share the same fate as Wilton, and ceased in a few 
years to be the seat of a prelate. The apparent causes of its becoming 
a see, as being the retreat of a hermit §, and most probably one of the 
places to which the early British Christians had retired, perhaps rather 
contributed to hasten than retard its fall. Hermann eagerly availed 
himself of the decree of 1075, for removing episcopal seats from vil- 
lages to large towns, and^transferred his see from Sherborn to 

Old Sarum, the Sorbiodunum \\ of the Romans, and the ibrntb^tig 
or AearijAHrtS of the Saxons. The clergy justly murmured at the 
change ; and besides complaining of the bleakness of the situation^ 
and the want of water, they compared their cathedral church, im- 

the AfOiquitatet Saruburien$es, have called Aldred bishop of Winchester; bat there being no such 
name of a bishop in that see, a modem author has thought proper to question the tux entirdy. 
A reference to the original writers, X Scriptows, instantly removes this error. 

* Godwin died of » surfeit, or was suffocated by a piece of meat, at the table of king Ed- 
«ard« in 105S, so that the period of his death renders it difficult to reconcile with that of the 
report reaching Hermann in France. The fact however of this prelate's enacting the fool and 
knave, by running away, appears unquestionable. 

t The exact period of Elfwold*s death is doubtfiil $ it seems to have been between 1050 and 1058. 

t Albnrga, tlie sister of Egbert, founded a monastery in Wilton, and occasionally resided 
there wlien the lung himself was at Sarum. 

i This spirit of sequestration, or retirement, prevailed equally among the Saxons as #ell as 
the Britons. St. German's was chosen for the Cornish see, while Leskard was the capital. 
David, bishop of Caerleon, in the sixth centuqf, removed his see to the vills^e, now called St. 
Pavid*s, on' a peninsular extremity of Pembrokeshire, exposed to the Atlantic ocean. In like 
manner Sherborn was raised to prelatical dignity. Its Saxon name. Scire tetm, means a clear 
brook (or bum, in the northern dialect), and therefore agreeable to the pastoral fancy of a her- 
mit. Ab1>ot Myer told Leland, that *' he had redde in Latine booke#t)f his house, (hat Sher- 
burne was calUd Cfone Foim.** It was also called Fon$ Argenteus, as appears by the following 
curious extract, furnished by the same author. " Offa, rex Est-Anglorum peregre proflciscens, 
ad cognatum suum Alkmundura, tn Saxonia (Wessex' as opposed to Mercia) commorantero, 
pervenit, ibique Edmundum ejus fllium in haeredem adoptavit.'* Ex vita Edwoldi fratris Ed* 
mcindi. ** Edwoldus vitam heremitic^m duxit apud Fontem Argenteum in Dorsetshir." Doubt- 
less the cell was that noticed by Leland : ** St. John hermitage by the mille, now down." As 
to the cathedral, which was converted into an abbey church, that part of it had only a thatched 
roof, should not be allowed to detract from the real grandeur of the edifice. A century before 
Leland's visit, i. «. about 1440, " a preste of Al-Halowis shot a* shaft with fier into the toppe of 
that part of S. Mary chirch, that devidid the est part that the monkes usid, from (that which) 
the townesmen usid^ and this ^rtition, <fhauncing at that tyme to be thakkid yn the rofe, vras 
.#ette a fier ; and consequently al the hole cliirch (the lede and belles melted) was defacid." 

I " In Sorbiodunum we recognise the Celtic words Sorhio dry, and dun a city ; and in the 
more modem appellation of Searbyrig, the Saxon words Sear dry, and byrig a town, so that 
Romans and Saxons designated it the dry city.** See Sir R. C. Hoare's Ancient WiUs. a superb 
work, which unfolds with unequalled fidelity the primitive history not merely of a province, 
Imt of the whole nation with respect to the arts and implements of civil life. 


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mured witbiD a vast and strong fortress^ to the ark of God shut up in the 
temple^f Baalim. Hermann being a foreigner^ had none of that in« 
tuttive wisdom which natives generally possess in adopting their bqild« 
ings to the peculiar climate, and therefore founded his cathedral 
church on a hill exposed to the inclemency of the weather^ and inside 
of a fortification also, instead of the valley, which was protected hy a 
castle, shieltered from the winds*, and watered by a clear stream, 
meandering over a fertile soil. He did not, indeed, live to finish the 
edifice he began, but died either in 1076-7 or 8. Osmund, a Norman 
baron, created earl of Dorset and lord chancellor, was his successor. 
He completed the church began by Hermann, and endowed it with 
considerable revenues, which are specified in a charter dated at Hast- 
ings, April 5, 1091, confirmed by William Rufus, and signed by seven 
counts, the archbishop, nine bishops, and nineteen other persons, in 
all thirty-seven, and not three, as has been erroneously stated. This 
charter is piously issued in the name of the iloly Trinity, while Osmund 
modestly styles himself merely ** bishop of the church of Salisbury," 
he " canonically grants for ever" several towns, the church of Sher- 
bom, &c. the '' church of Salisbury with its tenths and appendages, 
-and two and a half hides of land f in the same town, &c." *' a moiety 
of every oblation which shall be offered upon the principal altar ^, 
■except the ornaments, and the whole oblations of the other altars," &c. 
On .the fifth of April, 1093, Osmund, assisted by the bishops of 
Winchester and Bath, dedicated the new church. It is said that the 
belfry being burnt by lightning §, was deemed an ill omen of the 

* A very just apprehension of the winds appears to hare heen felt by the people of the west 
of England in all ages, and this awalcened their natural sagacity to contrive how to evade them. 
. •* Wlien the Britons of Cornwall," observes Whitalcer, " first fixed a church upon a site, they 
did as the Britons and Saxons of Cornwall equally do to this day, overlook all fear of dampness 
in the predominating dread of winds : they therefore chose a ground sheltered from the winds, 
though it was moist in itself, for the position of their church ; and the Saxons diose another 
more moist, but more sheltered, for their college." In the erection of the present cathedral of 
Salisbury, this indigenous consideration has had due influence. 

t All the estimated* quantities of land in a hide are totally incompatiUe with this state- 
ment ; we must therefore adopt the ingenious Mr. H. ^. Wyndham*s opinion, as expressed in 
the learned and critical preface to his translation of ** Wilescire.from Domesday Book," that it 
is an uncertain portion of land worth Ainually twenty Norman shillings, and therefore varying 
-in extent according to the quality.— Walter dc Eurus, d'Eureux, or Devereux, owned the castl^ 
and perhaps sold to Osmund the land here given. 

t *' Before the time of pope Gregory called the Great, the dead were always buried out of 
the town ; but saying mass for the dead being then invented, sepulture became the source of 
great gain, as every one left largely to have masses sidd to pray his soul out of purgatory ; the 
better to secure these fees, the <*lergy made burial grounds round the churches. The prindpal 
altar was called also the high altar, and dedicated to the patron saint, as this of Sarum was to 
■the Vii^n Mary, the offerings here were more sumptuous than others. By ornaments, we are 
to understand things for the use of the church, as plate, imafes, crucifixes, ampuls, candle- 
sticks, basins, h\tn, vestments, pixes, crosiers, mitres, chests of relics, philatories, tabernacles, 
chalices, censers, chrismatories, copesj chesables, altar-cloths, serta or garlands, buckles," &c. 

i Perhaps this is a mistake, as it has be^n erroneously stated that Knyghton says the iUipU 
,waft blown down, whereas he explicitly mentions only the roof, tectum, not taurii. '* This year 
the tower (turris) of Wynchcomb church was struck with lightning, it perforated the vralls, 
knocked down the head of a crucifix, and (most impiously) broke the right thigh of an imag« 

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A. ST. 1099.] WILT8HIRI* 

cburch*8 stability $ and Knyghton states that the roof was blown off 
the fifth day after its dedication. Every thing, indeed, conspired to 
make an impression on the mind that it could be only a temporary place 
of worship, notwithstanding its elegance and the immense sums which 
subsequent prelates bestowed on its decorations. The famous Petrus 
Blesensis, of transubstantiation notoriety, who wrote about sitty 
years after its erection, bestows on it his obtestatory denunciation. 
^' Sarum is a place exposed to the wind, barren, dry, and solitary ; a 
tower b there, as in Siloam, by which the inhabitants have for a long 
time been enslaved. The church of Sarum is a captive on a hill ; let 
us therefore, in God*s name, go down into the level, where the val- 
leys will yield plenty of com, and the champaign fields are of a rich 
soil.** This city, however, flourished for several years. That it was 
one of the most powerful and populous places in England at this 
period must be inferred, from the circumstance that king William sum- 
moned beep, in 1085, all the estates of England and Normandy, arch- 
bishops, bishops, abbots, counts, barons, knights, &c. to « wear allegi- 
ance * to him. Osmund completed his work by placing secular canons 
on the foundation, and in order to have them enlightened, learned, 
and pious men, wrote books for their instruction, and the service of his 
church, particularly the '' Ordinale secundum usum f Sarum,'* trans- 
cribed others, and, it is added, with his own hands bound and illumined 
sever^ to form a library. He died in December 1099, and to sate the 
avarice of a miser, pope Calixtus III. his name was deified X in 1457. 

of Mary ! The church was then filled with fetid Taponrt, when the monki with holy-water and 
ttlia of saints (as potent spells as any of Macbeth's witches) made processions round it. In 
London more tl&ui 600 houses and seteral churches were iiyured by a hurricane. In the church 
of Arcmbtu two men were killed, and six rafters of the church were driven into the ground, so 
that scarcely a sixth part of them appeared. The same tempest (turbo) blew off (d^jecU) the 
roof (tectum) of Salisbury church, the fifth day after Osmund had dedicated it.** X Scrip, p. 8964. 

* This, said Blackstone, in the first editions of his Commentaries, *< seems to hate been 
the era of formally introducing the feudal tenures by law (after compiling Doomsday Book), and 
probably the very law thus made at the ccmncil of Sarum is that which is still extant,** enact- 
ing that all freemen shall swear on their fealty, &c. to be ikithful to tlie king, kc. But mili- 
tary tenures were previously introduced, which proves the correctness of the lord chief justice 
Ellenborough*s remark, that the " Commentaries** made their author a learned judge, rather 
than a learned judge the ** Commentaries.*' Feudal tenures existed under Edward Confessor, 
and were tha result of necessity, the mere consequence of incessant wars, and not any great 
invention or grand system of policy introduced by the Normans. 

t In justice to Osmund's fame it must be observed, that he was not author of tU the devo- 
tional books in the use of Sarum. The Hora B. Firgims, Bmiarum and JIfasato contain many 
absurd and'even scandalous sentences, such as the story of the devil and St. Bernard, the non- 
aensical prayer for <* ardor without discretion,** the prayers to St. Wilgeforiis, to the 11,000 
niiUds, to Mary, to Apollonia for the tooth-ach, Sigismund for fevers, Sebastian and Roche for 
the plague, the amorous addresses to Miss Etheldreda, &c. kc. See « Reflexions upon the De- 
Totions of the%oman Church,** with translations of the prayers, hymns, &c. 8vo. 1074, a work 
of considerable merit; and he must be a very insensible man, or more influenced by prejudice 
than pie^, who would not occasionally either smile or sigh in'perusing it. 

t An interesting account of the miracles ascribed to him, and the correspondence with the 
pope respecting his canonization, will be found in Mr. Oodsworth*s work, extracted from the 
records preserved in the du^pter. It fun^shes some curious additions to the history of human 
credulity and knavery, as vrell as facts demonstrating the cupidity, to say no worse, of the 

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Roger, a Norman^ succeeded. He was a curate to a small cburch, 
in the vicinity of Caen^ when prince Henry, being out on a military 
enterprise, accidently entered the chapel, and with his companions 
heard him say mass. Roger, who knew something of soldiers* disposi- 
tions at church, read * the prayers so very expeditiously, that mass 
was ended before some thought it well begun. All applauded so dex- 
trous a priest, and the prince, pleased with the circumstance, desired 
bim to follow the camp, with which he cheerfully complied. Roger 
possessed liule learning, but considerable subtilty and adroitness, and 
was therefore very successful in whatever he undertook. So perfectly 
did he acquire his master's esteem, that when Henry came to the 
throne, he declared that '^ Roger would sooner be tired of asking than 
he of bestowing." Lands, churches, prebends, and whole abbeys were 
given to him ; he became his chancellor, and bishop of Salisbury. 
The office of chief justiciary, he modestly refused, till persuaded to 
it by the other bishops. He thus acquired«great wealth and influence f. 
The king, advancing in age, required an oath of allegiance to his 
daughter, the empress Maud, which our bishop and the other nobles 
willingly tendered. He died soon after, and Roger, forgetting his oatb 
to his benefactor, assisted in raising Stephen to the throne. For this 
he has been accused, and with apparent reason, of gross ingratitude and 
perjury. His apology, which may satisfy a papal casuist, is, that 
Maud engaged not to maiTy without the consent of the states, which 
she did not perform, and thereby forfeited their allegiance. At this 
period, however, the crown of England was rather elective than he- 
reditary, consequently our prelate was under no obligation but his 
oath. The subsequent conduct of Stephen, a brave and gtt[ierous war- 
rior, seems an " equivalent'* % to the bishop*s error in this case j 
for although he acted some years entirely by his advice, and raised 
bis relations, one to be the treasurer, and another chancellor of Eng- 
land, he treated our prelate with ingratitude and cruelty in his old 
age. A dispute arose between bishop Roger^s servants and those of 
the earl of Brittany ; our old prelate and his relations were summoned 

«ourt of Rome. This trade was the staple manufacture of the papal dominions. The Rev. Mr. 
Bowie, Archaeolog. ix. 39-44, ha» given some particulars of Osmund's deification. 

* This practice stHl continues in Spain, and even in Portugal. A poor Spanish chaplain 
will read over the prayers and perform the whole ceremonies of the mass in eleven minutes and 
a half ! for this he receives a peseta (about lOd.)* and proceeds to something else. This is called 
public worship, and it is certainly as innocent as loitering over the prayers (which are all read 
in a low and inaudible voice), and occasionally gloating at the women who atlfend the mass. 

t ** He constructed (says Leland) the castle of de Visas (Devizes) andSherbom }" the lat- 
ter was esteemed one of the first Yn Europe, and began one at Malmesbury. He brought his 
Ibrother [nuher his nephew, although Wikes, almost his cotemporary, calls him brother] 
** Alexander from France, and made him bishop of Lincoln ;»♦ this friend emulated him ** in 
Ktilding the superb castles of Newark, Leflbrd, and Banbury.'*' 

t See lord Halifax's ** Anatomy of an Equivalent,** which now meriu particular atteaUoM. 


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A*D. 1184.] WILTSHIRE. 

before the king ; they all appeared except Nigell^ bishop of £iy^ who 
retired to Devizes^ and fortified himself in the castle. This aggra* 
rated the evil ; the kin| immediately carried bishop Roger and the 
chancelloi^ his natural son (for bishops in those days might have mis* 
tresses * but not wives) to Devizes, and there threatened to hang 
yoong Roger if the castle did not immediately submit. To prevent 
thb, our aged bishop,. a fond parent, interfered, and bound himself by 
a solemn oath, not to taste food till the castle had surrendered. The 
determined Nigell, however, held out three days, before he opened 
his gates. Stephen also seized a great part of our bishop's wealth ; 
this grievance, with his long fast and his advanced age, threw him into 
a fever, and he died in December 1139. Roger added to the secular 
canons introduced by his predecessor, and it is believed raised the 
number of dignitaries to fifty-two, which the church retained till the 
reformation. Stephen himself, Maud, Henry il. and king John, all 
evinced their liberality to our church, which in grants, privileges, and 
immunities, was very highly favoured f. 

Stephen, opposed in the nomination of his favourite) kept the see 
vacant two years. Joceline de Bailul, a native of Lombardy, was 
theD appointed. He was twice excommunicated by the nefarious 
Becket for giving his consent to the archbishop of York's coronation 
of the younger Henry. Joceline directed the affairs of our church 
with great moderation ; he retired to a convent about a year before 
his death, and took the habit of a Cistertian monk. He died in 1184, 
and notwithstanding his monkish piety fVaccusi di pietii, non de ri* 
gore), it was considered no diminution of his religious character that 
he had a natural son J, Fltz-Joceline, who was bishop of Bath, and 
ultimately of Canterbury. In -consequence of the troubles occasioned 
by the refractory and rebellious Becket, our see remained vacant five 
years, and Henry appointed commissioners to collect its revenues §. 

* The RomUh clergy even at present are not too rigid in this respect j yet Capgrave, Vxia 
SU. GUdoi makes abbot Carilefus refuse to see even the* queen Altrogodis, declaring ** that so 
long as he lived he would not see the face of a woman, neither should any woman come within 
b'is monastery which he had biiilt, our lord commanding him. It doth not become us who are 
accounted of the family of Christ, to uU the teeing qf tw wUo vtomen} or for gaining of lands to 
adventure our souls to the enemy of mankind.** 

t See Dodsworth*s ** Historical Account of the episcopal See and Cathedral Church of Sa* 
lisbnry,** a work by far the most accurate, complete, and even elegant, which has hitherto ap- 
peared, or can appear, for some time to come on this subject. If Stevenson's edition of Ben- 
tluun*s Ely did honour to the Norwich press, so will Dodsworth*s history exalt that of Salisbury. 

t Human nature is the same in the present as It was in that age, but art had not then so 
completely triumphed over it, otherwise we should no more have heard of our good bishop*t 
sons than we now do of those of the vicar apostolic of the — district. Hie Rosseau system 
was then happily unknown, and\he pious bishops Roger and Joceline acknowledged their off- 
spring, and raised up good members of society. 

i The want of money was want of power in our kings of that age, and every means were 
pdspted to procoie both. Richard in 1194 issued a proclamation for holding a tournament be- 
tween Salisbury and Wilton) and that "every earl that shall tourney there shall give tons 


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It was afterwards occupied by Hubert Walter and Herebert Poore or 
Pauper ; tbe latter dying in 1217> was succeeded by Richard Poore, 
wbo bad been eighteen years our dean, two years bishop of Chichester, 
and was finally translated from Salisbury to Durham in 1968 (some 
accounts say 1^6), where he paid off the debts of his predecessor. 

The time had now arrived for the removal of our church to a mdre 
auspicious situation. Bishop Richard Poore weH knew the incon- 
veniences to which the clergy were subjugated by the soldiery of the 
castle, and although the waUs had been suflfered to decay, when the 
kings discovered the effects of castles in the hands of turbulent and dis- 
loyal barons, yet the military authority still existed ; the governor's 
right to forage at pleasure among the peasantry was still unimpaired. 
Other causes were no less efficient with the clergy for removing their 
church. Some of them were occasionally debauching the female rela- 
tives of the Castellans, which was retaliated by every possible contri- 
vance to annoy them. King John, also, in revenge kfr the pope's 
tyranny, imprisoned all their concubines *, and levied heavy fines oo 
them for their liberation. These grievances had long been the source 
of incessant broils ; but such was the deplorable vassalage to a foreign 
priest, that the king and states of the realm, could not move the site 
of a church from a hill to a valley, without the pope*s bull or 
licence, and even this was obtained merely by money and misrepresent- 
ation f .- Our prelate being then authorized to remove his church into 
the valley called Merrifield, Henry III. granted by charter | te the 
Ushop,. dean, and chapter, the whole ground selected for the site of 
*' New Saresbury," with all the prerogatives of a city, the same as Win- 
chester, making the bishop lord of the soil, sole^proprietor of all the 
local customs, and other immunities, empowering him to erect biidges> 
roads, &c. for the convenience of his clergy, and the inhabitants of 

twenty marlcs, a Baron ten marlct, and a knight that hath lands four marks, and he that hath 
no lands shall give two marks.*' Officers were appointed to recesre these fees, and the tonma- 
ment was held near Stratford. 

* On this head we shall cite the words of Italian and Rtunan Catholic historians. '< Sic* 
come in qnei tempe (1910) rari erano in Inghiltem gli eccleua^^ci che non avessero eoiicii6tM ; 
Giovanni, zelante della puntuale osservanza dei canoni le feoe imprigionar tutte, vendendo can 
a dascuna la loro Kberazione.** MwttndU, Star, fPhigkU.^** Dopo lo stabilimento del ceKbato 
fra il dero, observes Sastres, l*tuo delle conciibttie fira gli ecdesiastici divanne si gaterale, che l*ts«> 
tetsa corte di Boma fu costretta a totanorlo ; ed i vescovi in Inghilterra stabilironb de* regola- 
Mcnti rignardb a bastardi, che ne resultavano.^ Saggi nUla Gnm. Bntagna, 

t " The truth of the matter is (says Holinshed), the sonldiers of the castTe and chanons of 
(M Sarum fell at oddes, insomuch that after often brawles, they fell at last to sadde blowes.** 
In the <' 8alis9nry BaHad,** by Dr. Walter Pope, the fkiend of the excellent bishop Ward, the 
cao^s an intimated. 

'* The soldiers and churchmen did not lo%g agree. 

For the surly men with the hilt on. 
Made sport at the gate, with the priests that came late 
From shriving the nuns of Wilton.** 

t This charter is dated January the llth of Henry III, or 1997. but there most hate been 
tome previous grant to the bishop, before he began to build his cathednd. 


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A. D. 12^5.] WILTSHIRE. 

the new dty, wbo were also exempted from all tolls> pontage^ passage, 
stallage, carriage, &c. througliout the realm. The king reserved 
only the advowson of the bishopric, and the bishop became feudal lord 
of the city and its precincts, holding markets, courts of justice, &c. 
This, says Leland, was " the ruin of old Saresbyri and Wiltoun. 
For afore this, Wiltoun had twelv paroch churches, or more, and 
was the bed town of Wileshir." A road was made to Salisbury and 
a bridge over the Avon, near Hambam, which '' was a village before 
the erection of New 6aresbyri, and there was a church of St. Martin 
longging to h.'* 

The next consideration was the raising of funds sufficient, to build 
a new cathedral. For this purpose, the bishop and dean (Adam de 
Ivelcestre) issued a decree, ii» which they and all the canons and vi« 
cars in a convocation bind themselves to pay, by quarterly instalments, 
one fourth of their entire incomes during seven years. This instru* 
ment was dated " on the day of Sts. Processus and Martinianus," in 
1218. Preachers were also appointed to collect through the country 
the contributions of the pious. Mean time a wooden chapel to the 
Viigin Mary was built, and consecrated at Easter ; on the feast of the 
Trinity, 1219, the bishop also consecrated a cemetery, and it was decreed 
that the translation -from Old Sarum sbould take place on the follow* 
ing feast of All Souls. On the 28th of April 1220, the foundation of 
the present church was laid. Oiur prelate (says William de Wenda, an 
eye-witness, then precentor and afterwards dean), expected the king. 
His majesty, however, was engaged treating vrith the Webb, at Shrews* 
bury, and the bishOp amidst numbers of people, laid the first * stMie 
for pope Honorius, the second for his grace of Canterbury, and the 
third for himself. William Longespee, earl of Sarum, being present, laid 
the fourth stone ; his countess, Elaide V)tri> the fifth ; and after them 
the dean, chapter, and sevend others. Many of the nobility return* 
ing from Wales,- came to Salisbury and laid stones, thereby binding 
themselves to a contribution for seven years. The fabric being suffici- 
ently advanced to admit the performance of public worships tbe clerg^jr 
were summoned to attend the first service, when tbe bishop on the 
vigil of St. Michael, in 1225, being Sunday, consecrated three altars ; 
^e first in the east part in honour of the Trinity and All Saints, on 
which henceforward the mass of the Virgin was to be daily sung. He 
then dedicated another altar Sn the north part of the church to St. Peter 

♦ Henry** charter nyi the fint rtone wai laid in the king'i name. The tettknony of aneyt- 
witness, Wanda, most be reaeivcd, otherwise the account which Godwin gives is not contraiy 
to the manners of that age. " Fandolf, pontifical legate, says he laid the fite flri t stones, ont 
for the pope, another for the king, a third for carl SaUtbury, a fourth for the countess of SaliSi^ 
buiy, and the fifth and last for the biiho^.** 


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$md die Apo$de8, and a third in the souths to Stephen and other martyrt • 
On the following Thursday the king, and his justice Hubert de Burgh, 
wited the cathedral ; the former offered ten marks of silver, a piece of 
aiik, and granted a yearly fair of eight days duration ; the latter, a 
irolume of the Old and New TesTtament, adorned with precious stones^ 
and the relics of many saints. At the feast of the Trinity, in 1226, 
the bodies of bishops Osmund^ Roger, and Joceline, ^were rerooTcd 
from Old Sarum and deposited in the new church. 

The building of the cathedral now advanced very slowly; the 
funds of the clergy were completely drained by the extoxtiofw of the 
pope, and what little the people could devote to pious purposes was 
artfully carried off under the pretext of crusades. Dwelling houses 
were also required in the new city. But the papal rapacity had lost 
aJl limits, and Honorius unblushingly demanded a yearly rent from 
every religious establishment in England. Our bishop nobly refused 
this iniquitous imposition, and bis holiness was so enraged that he 
ordered the tenths to be rigorously collected, and threatened the bishop 
with excommunication if they were not instantly paid. Disappointed 
in one project, his infallible highness had recourse to another ; deter- 
mined to have money, he now attacked our bishop and the king of 
France, either to send out reinforcements to the crusaders or money 
to those already in Palestine. In this also he failed, and the bishop of 
Salisbury, in the name of the king, declined all efforts of crusading in 
the existing state of things *, Bishop Foore being now translated to 
Durham, Gregory IX. demanded the nomination of two prebendariea 
iti «very diocess in England. This likewise was refused, but he con« 
trived to send above 300 Italians to fill the first vacant benefices f. 
Robert Bingham was elected successor to bishop Foore, in Decem- 
ber 1228 3 he applied himself to complete the buildings of the cathe- 
dral, but although he lived till November 1246, and built St. Thomas's 
church, and Harnham bridge, he left the works still unfinished, and 
the see burdened with a debt of 1700 marks. His successor, William 
of York, was no more fortunate ; ^gidius de Bridport, or Gyles de 
Bridlesford, had the pleasure of seeing the cathedral completed, when 
he solemnly dedicated the church to the Virgin Mary, on the 30th 
S^tember, 1258, king Henry, the archbishop of Canterbury, and a 
great number of prelates and nobles being present. According to the 
account delivered to the king, the expenses of the building amounted 

* See Rymer's Foedera, to), i. p. 309-4. 

t The pope himself wished to visit England, Irat notwitUitaniing the superstition of the king 
•nd people, " the king's council liked not thereof, alle<^png that the Romans rapines and 
Mtnonies, had enough stained England's purity, though the pope hinuelf came not personal^ 
to spoil and pray upon the wealth of the chuKh." 

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a: D. 1350.] / wxtTftHrw* 

at that time to 40,600 marks, or £^6,666 : 13 : 4 sterling. But the 
cathedral had not then attained its actual sublimity ^ the nave/ aisles, 
choir, 'and transepts, the body of the budding, indeed, were unques* 
tionabty the same as we now see them -, but a story of ths tower and 
the whole spire have been added since, and most probably about a cen- 
tury * after the dedication. Unfortunately no record has since been 
discovered to say who was the architect of the spire f ; but its boldness 
of conception, its magnitude, so much greater than that of Chichester, 
to which it bears much resemblance, and much more elegant than that 
of i^orwich, all conspire to excite regret that we cannot here desig- 
nate the man whose genius and skill produced such an admirable 
structure. Although this spire is considerably higher than St. Paul's, 
liondon, yet the pyramid and tower exactly harmonize in the most 
graceful proportion. The low situation, indeed, of the whole edifice^ 

* Dugdale observes} *' there is a patent of the first je$i of king Henry VI. I4fi9, which re. 
cites, tliat the stone tower standing in the middle of Salisbury cathedral is become rainotis, 
and empowers the dean and chapter to appropriate dOJ. annnally for repairs.*' Hence he infers, 
that the '* repair was made, and tower rebuilt, with the odditiaa of a ipirt,** which he supposes 
to have been finished not later than 1429} for in that year sir Walter Hungerford had licence 
fh>m the king to appropriate the great tythes of Cricklade, and the reversion of the manor, 
called Abingdon's court, " to the dean and chapter of SalisbOfy cathedral, to makutim the taU 
^ire iteqtle of tliat fabric in repair,*' Had the spire been just erected, it could not then have 
required repairingf and it is very unasnal to find such prudential grants so long before they can 
be really wanted. Mr. Dodsworth, who, with the church records all before him, has investi- 
gated this point with equal talents and diligence, concludes that the spire was built between the 
years 1SS5 and 1S75, later than that of Chichester, which tradition ascribed to the same archi> 
tect. It is true, much alarm prevailed respecting the state of the spire, towards the end of the 
fourteenth century, and even later many chapters wer^held on the subject; but, as sir 
C. Wren observed, when he repaired it in 1666, the original architect had his fears, he added *' a 
most excellent bandage of iron to the upper part of the arcade, embracing the whole on the ottt« 
side and inside of the tower, with uncommon care.— This is, perhaps, the best piece of smithli 
vrork, as also the most excellent mechanism of any thing in Eurppe of its age." Seven other 
bandages hoop as it were the spire together, besides one round its basement, at the eight doors 
opposite the parapet of the tower, The whole structure, indeed, is most ingeniously conceived 
to possess the greatest strength with the most slendei^oiaTerials. It has even been struck with 
lightning several times, without experiencing any Material injury ; and in June 1741, it was 
actually set.on fire by this powerful element, the hole in a beam which it burnt before b^ing 
discovered may still<be teen. M nch has been said about its being twenty-three inches from a 
perpendicular, but this perhaps took place by a settlement even before it was completed ; cer> 
tain it is that no change of its declination has ever been recorded. Mr. Wyatt states that " the 
south-west pier is sunk seven or eight inches, and the norUi-west half as much ; this has occa- 
aioned the leaning of the tower and spire to the south-west.*' The two, however, are so admi- 
nbly bound together by arches and counter-arches, inside and outside } the winding stidrs in 
each of the comer piers of the tower, and the tabernacles with four door-wajrs in the spire, all 
contribute to maM it as durable as the nature of its materials will admit. The roof is estimated 
to contain 9641 tons of oak timber, and under it are six or seven cisterns of vrater in case of fire. 

t The origin of spires is envolved in the same obscurity as that of the pointed arch. Dug- 
dale considers the spirl of old St. t>!aurs» finished in IMU as one of the first, and Wartonj wh^ 
ascribes them to the Saracens, instances Norwich in 1878. Whenever turrets and pinnacles 
became general, spires were likely soon to follow } but much confusion has arisen, particularly 
la our Latin chroniclers, for want of distinct terms, to designate towers, steeples, and spires, 
and also by the misapplication of tVese terms. It appears, however, that the practice of build- 
ing spires, like many other useful arts, travelled from Greece to Rome, and thence to England, 
although it is no less certain that the spires in England, and particularly that of our cathedral, 
greatly surpass any thing of the kind ever constructed in foreign countries. Dallaway truly 
observes *' it has never been equalled.** Views still remain of buildings in Corinth with spires, 
and also some in ancient Rome, and we know that they existed in France before the crusades. 
Ducarel has given an account of spires on St. Stephen's, Caen, whicL was begun 1094, and 
finished in 1077 ) but the spires may be thvwork of Ehgllsb«rti8ts at a subsequent period. 

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contribates to dimiuish both its apparent and real grandeur, and stran* 
gers, unaware of this circumstance, csfti never believe that the body of 
the church is so very large, and the spire so high, till they actually 
enter them, ^11 they traverse the one and ascend the other. 

Having traced the history of our cathedral church to its final com- 
pletion, we have only to mention that bishop Beauchamp, with more 
vanity than taste, had a chapel erected outside the aisle of the lady 
chapel, for which several buttresses were cut away, and the structure 
(decipit exemplar vitiis imitabile) in a very dissimilar style, appeared 
an unnatural excrescence. Another chapel was also erected at the 
eastern end of the building by the -Hungerford family. An entrance 
porch had likewise been constructed at the north end of the western 
transept, most probably to imitate in some measure the Martyrdom at 
Canterbury, when it was the fashion to worship Thomas Becket. The 
intruded chapels greatly weakened the building, and endangered the 
existence of the whole east end. But thanks to the liberality and taste 
of bishop Barrington, and the talents of the late Mr. Wyatt, all 
these defects were judiciously removed in 1789, the cathedral restored 
to its primitive simplicity and beauty, while all the monuments of an- 
cient art were carefully preserved ^ and placed in parts of the building 
more congenial to their respective characters, and more consonant 
with the general harmony of the edifice. It is admitted by Bentham 
to be the only cathedral church which never had any intermixture of 
styles, and cited by Hawkins as " the first instance of the pure and 
unmixed Gothic in England.*' The elegant buttresses f, which had 
been sacrilegiously cut away to gratify private vanity, are now all re- 
stored, and the exterior proportions of the building are so admirably 
adjusted, the harmony of parts so complete, that it would be as wise 

* On repairing the lady chapel, tereral coffint were dtacoTered lying near the sorfoee; they 
contained perfect skeletons, and at the head of each a chalice and patten were found; one of 
these is of silver g^lt, and the design and workmanship are by no means inelegant. In the sane 
coffin were found a gold ring set with an agate» and a wooden crosier In a decayed state. In the 
centre of the patten is the hand of a bishop engraven, in the act of giving benediction ; it also 
hears the evident remains of linen which had probably covered the wafer as it decayed adhering 
to it. The ring is large, and supposed to be that of investiture ; the stone is perforated, and 
may probably have been in a rosary. It is coi^jectured that these articles Mlonged to bishop 
Nicholas Longespee, son of the earl Salisbury of that name, as there is an account <rf' hia 
having been buried near the spot where they were found. In removing the tomb of Beauchamp 
another ring set with a sapphire was discovered of much ruder workmanship. These remains are 
deposited in the muniment bouse, an octangular structure on the south side of the church. 
DodnDorih*$ Guide, and Gough*s Sepulchral Monuments. 

tin almost all other Gothic structures the buttresses either excite a degree of apprehension 
that the building is weak and likely to fall, or appear but dutisy after-thought devices, to give it 
strength and durability ; but here they are real ornaments, although simple in themselves, and 
devoid of all sculptured work. As to the antiquity of buttresses (the name of which is derived 
from the French arc-boutanU), they were originally used at the ends of buildings. Whitaker» 
(cathedral of Cornwall) says they ** were used by the Britons of Cornwall in the seventh century.** 
Hence perhaps have been derived our ideas of the hmu end of any thing. The earliest mention 
of lateral buttresses in England, occurs in the Itineiuy of William of Worcetteri i^ speaks 
of ",botra5ie8''atWare, in Hertfordshire^ 


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A. p. 179D.] WILTSHIRE. 

to attempt improving the figure of the human hody by adding or 
subtracting a Jirnb^ as to improve the external character of Salishtfry 
cathedral^ by adding or subtracting a single part. Nor is its interior 
less admirably harmonious in itself than the exterior. The same unity 
of design and consonance of object appear throughout. The few mo- 
numents which were necessarily removed, are placed in more proper 
situations between the pillars of the nave, or in the aisles of the tran- 
septs 3 and all the ornaments in the Beauchamp and Hungerford chapels 
have beei^ judiciously appropriated to respectable purposes. The 
vulgar Grecian screens, introduced by sir Christopher Wren, have 
been removed -, the lady chapel thrown into the chancel, the •altar 
carried to the east end of the building, a»d fitted up with some of the 
finely-sculptured Gothic niches found in the chapels ; the episcopal 
throne, prebendal stalls, and choir, are equal in elegance and delicacy 
of Gothic ornaments to any thing in the kingdom. The screen at the 
entrance of the choir, the organ * loft, the slight elevation of the 
chance], the slender yet lofty columns, the mosaic painted windows^ 
the distant prospect of the Saviour in the east window, di£fusing light 
^as rising up irom his tomb, and over it the upper eastern window f » 
with the enchanting representation of the brazen serpent, all conspire 
to give grandeur and sublimity, to shed " a dun religious light,*' and 
dispose the mind to the exercise of the highest and noblest of our mental 
faculties, grateful adoration of the benign author of our existence J. 
To preserve this fine building '^ the dean and chapter in 1808, set 

* This fine instTument wa» built by Mr. Green, and is a present of his mighty. " Moni- 
flcentia Georgii tertii, principis dementisslmi pientissimi opti»i, patris patriae et hvyusce dioe- 
ceseos incola aagostissimi.** The value of the gift was enhanced by the very graci jus manner 
it was bestowed. His majesty aslced bishop Barrington, whom he Icnew to be the projector and 
patron of the intended improvements, what they were, and how the expense was to be defrayed. 
His lordship described the several alterations, and observed that a new organ was much wanted* 
l>ut he feared it would greatly exceed the means, which depended solely on theroluntary contri- 
butions of the gentlemen in Berkshire and Wiltshire, the counties of which the diocess consists. 
The king, who has " sud more good things than any other gentleman in his dominions,*' 
immediately replied, " I desire that you will accept of a new organ for your cathedral, being 
my contribution as a Berkshire gentleman.** Dodsvoorth, 

t The painted window above the altar is from a design of Reynolds ; it is twenty-three feet 
high, and possesses no peculiar excellence ; but that of the adoration of the brazen serpent, con- 
sisting of twenty-one figures, designed by Mortimer, and executed by Pearson, is unquestionably 
^one of the finest pieces of the kind extant. The amat^r should go up to the ambulatory to 
observe this exquisite production of human genius, and study the figures of adoration, agony, &c. 

t These indispensable alterations, tasteful and judicious as they were, nevertheless occa- 
sioned some momentary dissatisfaction. Invidiousness, some dating pfejudices about thingt 
«s they are, and the latent but powerful influence of that sentimental fanaticism which affected 
public taste during the American war, and whiqh subsequently convulsed Europe, misled some 
intelligent Protestants, and in the awakened dread of puritanical barbarity, induced a most 
irrational devotion to every thing reputed ancient. Time and experience, however, have effect- 
ually dissipated all these fancies. As to Mr. John Milner, who for his calumnies on Protestants 
-was made a vicar apostolic, aD.D. (which deceives many, and often procures him the atten- 
tion merited by such graduates of an English university), and lastly a papal bialMp, his scurri- 
lous garrulity respecting the improvements in our cathedral is beneath notice. His quarto 
pamphlet, of which unfortunately for him he has published a second edition, after his first 
!wrath might have subsided, is issued forth as a ** Dissertation on the modem Style of altering 
imcient Catiiedjrali>*' and it is perhaps imposiible to name a tract lo replete with errors, idit 


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apart one eighth of their fines for its repair ; bnt this being found in- 
sufficient, a general chapter was held in 1813, where it ]jras determined 
to contribute two and a half per cent, on all fines for this purpose. The 
bishop and dean liberally agreed to make a similar allowance from all 
the fines of lands attached to their respective dignities, as well as their 
prebends.** With these funds (and the judicious care of its conser- 
vators), there is little doubt of Salisbury cathedral ^ long remaining 
one of the most perfect buildings of the kind extant. The cloisters are 
in fine preservation. The highly curious chapter-house, which had parti- 
cular stalls for the respective dignitaries, suffered much by the r^belli* 
ousiinatics. It is octangular, supported by a slender central pillar. The 
Bible history from the Creation to the passing of the Red Sea was sculp- 
ture above the arches round it, but the work is greatly defaced ; yet 
enough remains to prove that some of the sculptures were graceful and 
elegant (especially three female heads on a capital in the south-west 
comer) , although it has been unthinkingly asserted that " there is neither 
grace, taste, nor proportion in the figures themselves." The floor is 
paved with glazed tiles, called Norman. As to the monuments f in the 

Reclamations, falsehoods, and misrepresentations. He asserts that the pedestals of the deli- 
cate columns in the chancel are covered by raising the pavement, yet his more honest draughts- 
man very correctly shews them distinct and entire ! The clergy of Winchester are doabtiess 
much obliged to him for the improvements which he generously suggests to ^em in their ca- 
thedral J and above all for the images and emblems of idolatry which he proposes placing in the 
high altar. But of such a writer it is superfluous to Miy more. We cannot expect much fidelity 
of representation from those who adopt the system of holding no faith with persons differing 
from them in opinion . If any one has been deceived by M ilner, let him come to our cathedral, and 
see with his own eyes. Nay, more ; should it happen to be the day of communion, he may per- 
haps be surprised, if an inhabitant of London, to see so many young and beautiful communicants 
in so small a parish as the Close. He will perhaps then discover that the sublime effects of the 
edifice admirably correspond wiih the simplicity and solemnity of this impressive ceremony. 

* The establishment consists of dean, precentor, chancellors of the diocess and church, 
treasurer, archdeacons of Sarum, Wilts, and Berks, sub-dean, sub-chanter, £orty«five prebends, 
/our of which are annexed to the bishop, dean, &c. six of the prebendaries are residentiary 
canons, four vicars choral, seven lay-vicars or singing meii (formerly there was only six) one of 
whom is oiganis% eight choristers, &c. At the Reformation the church had above 9000 ounces 
of silver in images of Mary, Osmund, censers, &c. chests of relics, tabernacles, biers, &c. 

t The monument of the boy-bishop, as it is called, has excited much attention. ItU 
covered with an iron grating, and is a stone image of a little boy, habited in episcopal robes, 
with a mitre on his head, a crosier in his hand, and at his feet a kind of dragon or monster. 
Mr. J. Gregory has discussed this subject in his dissertation, " EpinxpUM jmerorum in die Inno. 
eetUium ; or a Discovery of an ancient Custom in the Church of Sarum, making an anniversary 
Bishop among the Choristers." In the statutes of our church it is observed, ** The .^pis- 
€opus Choristarum was a chorister-bishop, chosen by his fellow children upon St. Nicholas's 
day.*' The reason of this day being chosen is thus stated in the record of this festival. " It 
is sayed that his ftider hyght Epiphaniul and his moder Joanna, &c. And whan he was bom, 
itc, they made him Christen, and caled him Nycolas, that is a mannas name, but he kepeth 
the name of a child, for he chose to kepe vertues, meknes, and simplenes, and without malice. 
Also we rede while he lay in his cradd he fasted Wednesday and Friday : these dayes he would 
•ottke but ones of the day, and therwyth held him plesed : thus he lyued all his lyf in vertues 
with this childes name. And therefore children don him worship before all other saints.'* 
From that day till Innocents' day the qtiscopus puerorum was to personate a bishop, and dis« 
charge all bis functions except that of saying mass ; his fellow choristers were to play the part 
of prebendaries, yielding to their bishop canonical obedience. In case the chorister-bishop 
died within Hut month, his exequies were solemnized with a pomp correspottding to his as- 
ramed rank ; he was buried in all his ornaments, and hence the origin of the monument stiU 
remaining in our cathedral. The custom, although common on the continent, was almost pe- 
waHi9^ to SaUsbury in this country ; and we have oo reason to regret ;bat the ridiculotts farce oC 

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A. D. 1813.] WILT6HISB. 

Ghurcb> their present situations and names will be found accurately 
laid down in the Ground Plan. The mural monuments * merit attention^ 
particularly some of the finely executed modern ones. Flaxman*t 
figure of Benew>lence, exhibiting the good Samaritan, to commemo- 
rate W. B. Earle, has much interesting merit, although the left band 
and fingers of the female are bad, the right is also ungraceful, and she 
is without lower drapery. The same artistes Gothic monument to 
W. Long, esq. is much superior ^ the canopy, screen, and the figures 
at each side, are finely and correctly executed. This attempt at Gothic 
architectural ornaments is hi|;hly laudable as well as promising. 
But Bacon*s monument of the immortal author of '' Hermes," chal- 
lenges the liveliest admiration, not less for the exquisite delicacy and 
grace of the figure, than the classical conception and execution of the 
whole piece. The medallion is a fine profile of this ever- admirable 
writer of the Dialogues on Happiness, Su:. The tablets recordipg the 
demise of the dignitaries f have in general little variety. Yet the walls 
are spacious enough to exhibit memorials of them, provided none but 
the virtuous were suffered to be so honoured. The names, indeed, of 
the sanguinary and igneous bishops Erghum and Waltham, who burnt 
the virtuous Wiclifites { with so much satanic fury, are properly suffered 

lepretenting tbe massacre of Uie Innocents in a kind of drama extended no fort her ; howerer 
it is still oontinned and repeated in some parts of Spain, and was, till the rerolution, performed 
in several provinces in the south of France and Italy. 

* Salisbarjr has produced many great men in every department of human knowledge. Tbe 
historian John of Salisbury, although a friend of Becket* thus describes popeiy : " scribes and 
Pharisees sit in the church of XU>me, laying intolerable burdens on men's backs. Tbe l^ates 
swagger as if Satan were let loose to scourge the church ; they eat the mtu of the people while 
the true worshippers, who worship the father in qnrit and truth, and dissent fh>m their doctrine^ 
are condemned for schismatics and heretics. Let Christ then shew us the right way.'* This 
great man died in 1 188, loi^ before Wiclif or Luther. See Mag. Briton, Bishop Thomborougli. 
the poet Massenger, tbe artist Oreenhill, and a multitude ol^ other writers received existence 
and the rudiments of education in our city. The first earl of Chatham was bom in Stratford | 
but this statesman's popularity is now on the decline; patriotism and opposition to the govern- 
ment are no longer considered synonymous, and it will soon require Uie gntat virtues of the son 
to shield the errors of an ambitious and despotic father. But <me of the greatest ornaments of 
our church. Dr. Thomas Bennet, vicar of St. Giles, Cripplegate, London, should be particularij 
noticed among native and patriotic authors. His *' Confutation of Popery," and all his works 
are so elegant, nervous, clear, convincing, learned, and logical, that they are worthy precursors 
of the great Harris's ** Philological Enquiries." In natural history also we find many distin- 
guished characters, and were it permitted to instance a royal physician (Dr. Maton), the learned 
and scientific vice-president of the Linnean Society, Salisbury has contributed its portion t* 
the natural as well a^philol<^ical sciences. 

t In the episcopa palace there are finely executed portraits of all the bishops since the re;> 
volution. Among the paintings in this palace are two fine landscapes, executed by bishop Fisher 
himself (the preceptor of her royal bigness princess Charlotte of Wides), which are not unwor- 
thy the pencil of an artist. 

t Wiclif was summoned before Erghum at Oxford, but the bishop was soon embarrassed 
by the great reformer* The good citizens of Salisbury were also his disciples, and were perse- 
cuted by* this bigotted prelate. Half the people of England were then Wiclifites or Lolhardk 
(i. e, constant singers, from U^len to sing and hard diligent), yet, strange to say, now that thqr 
are all Protestants, very few of them know any thing of his peat and immortal labours. Th^ 
Bev. Mr. Baber of the British Museum has republished WiclW's translation of the New Test- 
ament, and whether considered as a history of our.language or a key to the scriptures, it is 
extremely valuable. The translation of the Bible has never yet been published ! this is a national 
dngrace, and we trust the learned and ingenious editor of the New Testament will immediatcl|r 
he called on and enabled to discharge this public duty. 

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to sink in oblivion ; but those of Jewel *, Abbots Earle^ Seth Ward, 
F. R. S. Burnet, Sherlock, and Douglas, V. P. S. A. &c. must ever be 
cherished. It would, indeed, be difficult to produce in any country a 
more extensive series of great and illustrious, of learned; pious, and good 
men, than what we find in the see of Salisbury. Even in the dark ages 
of ignorance, barbarity, and unlimited superstition, with the few ex- 
ceptions before noticed, our cathedral has been peculiarly fortunate in 
possessing men of learning, talents, and worth, in all its dignities, 
from Osmund and Poore, down to the present day, to the elegant 
Alison, the accurate Coxe, and the |)rofound Daubeny. While our 
church can boast of such characters, our religion must always remain 
permanent and pure, our country great, illustrious, free, and happy. 

* Jewel, the founder, or rather augmenter of the library, which contains a colleeUon of 
Tery valuable, classical, and other bopks, many on Saxon and northern literature, besides above 
100 MSS. from the tenth century to the invention of printing. So highly were these books 
esteemetl, that " we find,*' says Dodsworth, " copies of indentures regularly executed between the 
bishop and chapter, relative to the loan of a Bible and Psalter, furnished to the bishop, appa- 
xently for bis use in the service of tbe church, and which he was 1)ound to return in case of 
translation, or his executors in case of his death."— Abbot, distinguished by the singular letter 
which king James addtessed to him, respecting the right of kings. See Welwood*s Memoirs.— 
Earl, author of Microcosm<^raphy, a most excellent moral work, of which Mr. P. Bliss has 
edited a new edition, and added many curious notes.— Ward*, the amiable mathematician, whom 
Dyer, Hist. Cambridge, has traduced by confounding him with Dr. Samuel Ward, obtained the 
restoration of the chancellorship of the garter, which was held by the bishops of Salisbuiy, 
from Edw. III. to Henry VII I. —Douglas, author of " the Criterion of true and false miracles/* 
the most effectual antidote ajialnst papal sCnd other delusions which ever appeared* 


LENGTH. Outside^ 473 feet, western transept 239 feet 7 inches ; Innde 449, the nave being 
USQ feet inches, choir 131, and lady chapel or chancel (J8:6 ; tbe western transept SOS : 10 ; eastern 
do. 143. WIDTH, Outside ot the west ^ont HI : 4, nave and aisles 99 ;4 : western transept and 
ai8le81:4; eastern do. do. 65; Inside oi nave and choir from pillar to pillar 34:3; aisles from 

£iliHr to wall 17 : 6 ; western transept 34 : 10, its aisle 15 : 6 ; eastern transept £4 : 10, its aisle 14. 
[EIGHT of vaulting in nave, choir, and transepts 81 ; aisles and lady chapel 39:9; outside pa- 
rapet w^U and nave 87, do. aisles 44, roof 115, west front 130, of tho»arapctoq tower SOTj tower 
and spire to the cross ^ : 10 ; breadth of tower from east to west 51 : 2, north to south 50 : 6. Tbe 
cloisters outude are 195 reet, inade 181 and 18 wide. The chapter-house is 58 feet interior d'la- 
ineter. The above correct admeasurements are by Mr. Fisher, clerk of the works, with the addi« 
tions of Mr Dodsworth, which we have also verified. 


Plate 1, Represents the South Side of the cathedral from its west, nearly to its eastern extre- 
mity. The range of building before it is the bishop's palace, with lawn, walks, and shrubberies. 

Plate %t Shews the North Porch, the North Transept, and part of the Nave. In the fore-ground 
of this view formerly stood a useless bell-tower, which was taken down when the drains of 
stagnant water were filled up, the tombstones laid flat, and the whole churchyard made a 
smooth and salubrious green in 1790. 

Plate 3. In this view appears the Wall of the South Cloister, the ChapteHHouse, and the South 
Transepts, with part of the nave. 

Plate 4. A view in the Cloisters from the West; over the eastern cloister is the library, above 
which is seen part of the Chapter-house. 

puke 5. The West Front, shewing part of the doister wall and the nave. The few statues which 
now remain in the niches have nearly lost all character by decay. 

Plate 6, Represents the South-east End of the Choir and Chancel, with the side aisle of the lat- 
ter, part of the South-eastern Transept and the Spire. 

PUae 7. The Interior, taken from the north aisle of the nave, shiwing the Southern End of the 
Western Transept ; the monuments appearing are those of John de Montacute and Osmund. 

plate 8, Is a distant representation of tlie Cathedral from the North-east of Old Sarum ; on the 
right side upon a high rampart appears the principal entrance to the citadel, with fragments 
«f the walls, from which across the foss is a narrow raised way leading from tbe castle to the 
ancient city. To the west of this view was the site of the original Cathedral* 


Digitized by 



•«* The itaUc Utters indicate the pages marked at the bottom of the left side; 
thus^ (a) (b) ^c. and the Utter N for note. 

printed Hemy's) promiMd liberality to biibo^ 

Lolhard*8, meaning of, p N.— L(nigipee, eail 
of Sanun, t N.^Longipee, m, a. 

Malmesburjr's character of Alddme*t styl^ 
a N. — Monlu oppose the remani of the see 
from Wilton to Malmesbury, 6.— Maud, em- 
press, allegiance to,/.— Milner, Mr. J<rfin, his 
ddttsive titles, n ; his misrepresentations con- 
tradicted eren by his own plates, o N ; an ex- 
ample of a papal bishop without any Christian 
spirit, ib.^Merryfleld, ancient site of Salis- 
bury, A.— Maton, Dr. a great naturalist, p N. 
— Mnnimtot-hoose, its omtents, ».— Moocj^ 
want of, by our kings, g N. — ^Mmraments, o,p, 
and ground-plan. — Magna Charta, original 
copy of, in the records of the cathedral, disco- 
rered by Dodsworth, r. 

Nicholas, St. legend of, oN. 

Osmund, his talents, and merits, d} Imilt 
the church in Old Sarum, ib. } erroneous ac- 
counts of his church being injured, now first 
corrected ftom Knyghton, ib. i not author of 
all the Sarum devotions, e N. ; his body le- 
moved to Salisbury, k.-, tomb, pi. 7, and 
ground-plan j deified, i. 

Pope*s bull to remove the cathedral of Sa- 
rum to Salisbury, A ; the plundering tyranny 
of the popes, k } one of them refused permis- 
sion to visit ]&agland,ib. ; Honorius demanded 
a yearly rent fh>m the English clergy, Ar.— 
Poore^ bp. began building the present cathe- 
dral, Jk.— Pope, Dr. W. p N.— Plates, descrip- 
ti<m o( 9. — Palace, episcopal, paintings in, p, > 
view of, pi. 1. 

Roger, bp. his rapid reading, /; his casuist- 
ry, ib. } in his old age persecuted by Stephen, 
ir>— Ringof investiture, ».— Retirement, c N. 

Sarum, old, clergymen of,cj cathedral and 
see in, d; a populous city, «j the king held 
his states here, ib.; ruin of, wnd Wilton, i; 
distant view of, pi. 8.— Saxon bishops, their 
character, a.— Salisbuiy, the city of, h ; cathe- 
dral erected, i; diocessof, n N— .Wicklifites 
abounded in, pj learned men of, i6.— Sculp- 
ture in chapter-house, j and monuments, p. 
— See held at Sunning uid Ramsbuiy^ b; at 
Sherborn and Wilton, c. — Sherbom, origin of, 
c N. —Spire, according to Dodsworth, proba- 
bly began about 1335 by Nich. Portland, and 
completed by Richard de Farleigh, who built 
Bath and Reading abbeys, < N ; its admirable 
structure, ib. — Smith's work, ib. ; its great 
height, ib.— Spires, origin of, 2 N.— Screen* 
Grecian, removed, and a gothic one restored, 
«.— Spanish chaplain, /N. 

Tower, (100 stories added to it, and perhaps 
the spire, I } error respecting that of Old Sarum, 
«N.— Timber in the roof, IN, 

Vicar-apostolic, licentiousness of a, now liv» 
ing in England, g N. 

Wanda*s narrative of building and conse. 
crating the cathedral, t.— Wren, sir C survey 
of the'spire, kc. I N.— Wyatt, Mr. judidons 
architectural alterations, m.— Windows paint- 
ed, n. — Widdifites persecuted in Salisbury, 
p N.— Ward, bishop, recovered the chancellor- 
ship of the garter, 9. 

Adelme*s talents and style characterised, 
a N^— Alfstan's morality vindicated, a N. — 
Asser not Asser Menev. 6 N.— Athelstan be- 
came St. Neot, a N.— Alison, prebend, author 
of admirable Sermons and Essays on Taste, 
Ice. 9.— Abbot Carilefos's dread of women, 
g N.— Aldred erroneously called bishop of 
Winchester instead of Worcester, 6N. 

Beauchamp chapel, m. — Bishops, 'distin- 
guished ones, a k q; blood-thinty ones, p ; 
list of, r.— Boy-bishop, history and monument 
of, a N } a custom still extant in Spain, parti- 
cularly in CbnuMo, ib.— Buttresses, origin of,, 
mN.— Baber's Wiclif*s New Testament, p N. 
—Bishoprics, new, h wnd aj— Bishops* mis- 
tresses and condulsines, g Sch N.— 'Barring- 
ton, (bishop) liberality and taste, ».— Breth- 
wold's ^nerosity, I N.— B««-end, » N. — 
Bridport dedicated the present cathedral, Ir.— 
Bennet, Dr. T. his works, pN. 

Commentaries, Blackstone's, «.— Chapel of 
wood consecrated, t.— Lady chapel repaired, 
kc. m; and episcopal rings found in it, ib.'S. 
—Chapter-house, its roof supported by a cen- 
tral pillar, and ornamented with some graceful 
sculpture, 0.— Chatham, (first earl of) his 
birth-place and character, p N.— Concubines, 
A, N.— Cathedral built by Poore and Bingham, 
i, k, andl} expense of, ib.j its tower and 
spir^ IN 3 set on fire by lightning, <; im- 
proved by Wyatt, a N.— Cloisters, &c. pi. 4.— 
Coflbis found, »N.— Cornish Britons dread 
vrinds, d. N.— Cornwall, bp. of, b. 

Dead, burial of, made a source of revenue by 
popes, d N.— Dean and chapter's liberal grants 
fdr repairing the cathedral, «.— Deans, list of, 
r.— Dimensions of the cathedral, 9.— Descrip- 
tion of the plates, ib.— Dodsworth's Hist, of 
8. Cathedral, authentic, original, and unri- 
valled, g N.; discovers the builden of the 
tower and spire, I N.— Douglas, bp. his cha- 
racter, 9. 

Establishment, present, of the cathedral, 
o N.— Ellenborough, lord chief justice, «N.— 
England, crown of, elective,/. 

Funds for building the cathedral, t and o.— 
Foundation, i.— Fidier, present bp. landscapes 
painted by, p N.— Fisher, Mr. dimensions of 
the cathedral, 9. 

Godwin, eari, his death, c N.— Godwin, bp. 
his account of building the cathedral, tN. — 
Gregory's account of the boy-bishop, oN.— 
Greek style, a N.— Green, organ built by, n N. 

Henry III.'s charter for New Saresbuiy, h, 
^4Inngerford chapel removed, m; see the 
ground-plan.— Hide of land, d. N.— Harris, J. 
his numument and works, p N. -Hermann's 
diaracter, 6} removed his see from Wilton 
to Sherbom, c.-*Hoare, kir R. C. c N. 

Interior of the cathedral, pi. 7.— Italian au- 
thors record the libertinism of the English 
priests and religious, h; above 300 Italians 
liolding Eni^sh livings, k. 

John of Salbbury truly describes popery, 
P N.— Joceline's character, g.— Jewel improved 
the library, 9. 

King Oecffge III. gave the organ, n N; his 
TCAdy wit, ib.— King Stephen's (ctro&eoosly 

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Of Wilton. 
Adeline 705 

Fordhere 709 

Herewald 737 


Eahlstan 818 

Edmund 868 

Etbeleage 872 

Alfry or AUsius 

Switbelm (884) 

Ethelward (887) 

Of Skerborn. 
Weretan died in 91 8 

Sigelm ^ 


Wulsin 940 

Alfwold ' 958 

Etiielric 978 

Ethelsius 980 

Brithwin IOO9 

Of fViliotif or Sunning 

and Ramsbury, 
EthelsUne 906 

Odo Severus 920 

Osulf 934 

Alfstan 970 

Alfgar or Wolfgar 981 
Siricius 986 

Aluricus 989 

Roger, Osbert, Sereo 
Robert died in 1111 

Robert Cbichester 
Robert Warlewast 1140 

John of Oxford 1165 

Jordan 1192 

Eustacbius 1195 

Ricbard Poore 1 197 

Adam de Ilcbester 1215 
William de Wanda 1320 
Robert de Hertford 1238 Wykebampton 1257 
Walter Scammel 1274 
H. de Braundeston 1284 
Sim. de Mitcham 1287 
Peter of Savoy 1290 

W. Ruffatus de Cas- 
sineto 1309 



Britbwold 995 

Hermann 1043 

Of Sarum. 
Osmund 1078 

Roger 1107 

Joceline 1142 

Hubert Walter 1189 
Herbert Pauper 1194 

Of Salisbury. 
R. Pauper or Poore 1217 
Robert Binj^ham 1229 
William of York 1247 
Giles de Bridport 1256 
Walter de la Wyle 1263 
R. de Wickhampton 1270 
Walter Scammel 1284 
H. de Braundeston 1287 
Law. de Hawkburn la Corner 1289 
Nicholas Longspee 1291 
Simon de Gandavo or 

Ghent 1297 

Roger de Mortival 1315 
Robert Wyvil 1329 

Ralph Erghum 1375 

John Waltbam 1388 
Ricbard Metford 1 395 
Nicholas Bubwith 1407 
Robert Haltam 1407 

John Chandler 1417 

Robert Neville 1427 

Willi.'un Ayscough 1438 
R. Beaucharop 1450 

Leonel Woodville 1482 
Thomas Langton 1484 


Raymond de la Goth 1310 

Bertrand de Farges 1346 

Reynold Orsini 1347 

Robert Braybroke 1380 

T. de Montacute 1385 

John Chandler 1404 

Simon Sydenham 1418 

Thomas Browne 1 430 

Nicholas Billesdon 1434 

Adam Moleyns 1441 

Richard Leyat 1446 

Gilbert Kymer 1449 

James Goldwell 1463 

John Davyson 1473 

Edward Cheyne 1499 

Thomas Rowthall 1505 

William Atwater 1509 

John Longland 1514 

Cuthbert TonsUll 1521 

Raymund Fade 1522 

John Blythe 149S 

Henry Deane 1500 

Edmund Audle^^ 1502 

Laur. Campeggio 1524 

Nicholas Shaxton 1534 

John Capon 1539 
Peter Petow, Franc. 

Mallet 1557 & 1558 

John Jewel 1560 

Edmund Gheast 1571 

John Piers 1577 

John Coldwell 1591 

Henry Cotton 1598 

Robert Abbot 1615 

Martin Fotherby 1618 

Robert Tounson - 1 620 

John Davenant 1681 

Brian Duppa ' 1641 

Hum. Henchman 1660 

John Earl 1663 

Alexander Hyde 1665 

Seth Ward 1667 

Gilbert Burnet (I) 1689 

William Talbot 1715 

Richard Willis 1721 
Benjamin Hoadley 1723 

Thomas Sherlock 1734 

John Gilbert 1748 

John Thomas 1757 
R. Hay Drummond 1761 

John Thomas 1761 

John Hume 1766 
Hon. S. Barrington 1782 

John Douglas 1791 

John Fish£R 1807 

Peter Vannes 1539 
William Bradbridge 1563 

Edmund Freke 1570 

John Piers 1571 

John Bridges 1577 

John Gordon 1604 

John Williams 1619 

John Bowles 1620 

Edmund Mason 1629 

Richard Baylie 1635 

Ralph Brideoake 1667 

Thomas Peirce 1675 

Robert Woodward I69I 

Edward Young 1702 

John Younger 1705 

John Clarke 1727 

Thomas Green 1757 

Rowney Noel 1780 

John Ekins 1786 

Charles Talbot 1809 

(1) Mr. Dodtworth has discovered among the records of the cathedral an ori^nal copjr of 
Magna Charta, which this veracious prelate was ftaOsely accused of concealing or destrosring. 
frrvta.— P./, line ll, for "Henry»» read " Stephen.**— P. i, line «S, for"Wenda»» r. «« Wanda.'^ 
—.p. k lino 5 from bottom, for " Bridlesford** read «< Bridport,**— P. f, for " a story** r«a4 
' " two stories."— P. 0, line U, after the word « octangular** iniert « the Taultiog it.*» 

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We^Q:^^?wi^<^a/iJm{/r'L/ ^oMe^au- 

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2^iufn * A^' '** -' J«"-c 

//r^<^/^^ ^j/^-^ y^.^^:^^/<?^'' <^ izm^/^/'a//^. 


/j^tv-W Oi-l-i.jSi4 ty Shervoad.Neify k JcujJ^atnujta 1^ . 

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Shewing -dieipvinin^ of -die ^c^. 

KJyave. B. i^ir. Q.Z.Frindpal Jhmftpt. 'DJ>:EArtcm Dnmsept. 
'R.ITte Zatfy Ch/^elJY..CZ4firtxr. (^.(TuipterEimjr.'KJiiu/iimentlUKmi. 
'LCanriftorial OmrC.'KJrhe untrr at'lhe Tbwer. 

1 "BirTwp JSvyer. JA-^Buhvp Bh^die. . 

ZSifhop Jocolxne.. 

4-—Wulumi Zi^iu^esj^ee Sen of 

WiUuvri .JCsri (^' Salis^uty 

5-^ishcp Mftuu'Aa/np. ..... 

7_ Ja^m^ De J^e/itacute 

B^ZiTd Stmtrum.^ ...-,._ 

^-^isAiTp Osnumd 

W-SuIwpDe U WyU 

H ^Sjffu^erfivd Tonibs. , 

IZ _ WiMiani Zemej-pec .Sari i^" SaUfhir\ 
2b — SirJo?m. Jiatey.. 

ZS^Sifhcp 2£Bififrd. 

USifhiTp Wccth-iile. 

I0^1,y<,ri .> .. .-;..«.*.. 

17 .i?/" I^IBiymet 

J3^BrtU£ cf Bishop W/vU.-. 

W. Bishop Zcar _ . 

W.BCshiTp Buj^?iam'.. - 

U^ihtdUy (Jiapei . 

U-Bishi^ 2Xjrcvval . 

72>-Bijhi^p Wu'Jc^iampten^ . . 

Z4.^SJmycrf0rd Ch^el 

t5^Bi/hop WUUani of Terk. 

tO^Bishop BridpiTt 

Zt-BCshcp Qspcn 


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The early progress of Christianity in the district now termed Somer- 
setshire is much involved in positive fahle, or is, at the hest^ left 
indistinct and unsatisfactory by the scanty and confused records of 
those writers who are usually received as credible. It is in an Anglo* 
Saxon age that we find a safe foundation for the commencement of 
church-history, in regard to this county. Ina, king of the West 
Saxons, whose long and prosperous reign was greatly distinguished by 
the promulgation of a judicious legislative code, which yet remains'^ 
founded here, in the year 704, a collegiate church, dedicated to St. 
Andrew th& apostle. The same munificent king rebuilt the neigh- 
bouring abbey of Glastonbury 5 and, as we are told by Brompton^ the 
. structure which he there raised was of a superb character, and lasted 
until the destructive incursions of the Danes. The buildings at Wells 
had probably little pretension to grandeur, even in the esteem of the 
rude age in which they were constructed. The collegiate ecclesiastics 
were at first only four in number, and the endowment appears to have 
been slender, until augmented by Cynewulf, king of Wessex, about 
the year 766. This youthful king bestowed on the institution eleven 
manses and farms 5 a benefaction, as may be presumed, quite sufficient 
for the religious uses and respectability of the establishment^ but 
which afforded no means of ostentatious splendour. 

In this appropriate mediocrity of condition the college of Wells is 
believed to hs^ve remained, until a memorable epoch in the annals of 
the Anglo-Saxon hierarchy. In the practice of a policy not unfre- 
quent in many subsequent ages, king Edward the elder kept numerous 
bishoprics vacant for a considerable length of time ; for which in- 
fringement of ecclesiastical rights he experienced the penalty of ex- 
communication from Rome. To appease the head of the church, he 

I Wilkint't Leget Saxonicc, p. 14-97. 

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filled seven sees in one day*j and, at this time, tbe collegiate founda- 
tion of Wells was erected into a bishopric, and the distiict now de- 
nominated Somersetshire was constituted the diocess of the new 
prelate. AtheUnus, or Athelm, was the first bishop of Wells ; and 
the year d05 is usually mentioned as that in which be was consecrated. 
He was promoted to Canterbury, and was suci^eeded by Wlf helm, 
who has been noticed by several historians as a pious and learned 
man. In the time of this latter prelate the foundation of a cathedral 
church was laid at Wells j but no part of the structure that was 
commenced under his notice, r^nains at present for the gratification 
of the curious examiner. Brithelm, fifth bishop in the order of suc- 
cession, is chiefly memorable fgx having erected the jurisdiction of 
Glastonbury (which monastery was rendered independent of episcopal 
luUhority by king Ina), into an archdeaconry. Gisp, who bad he&k 
chaplain to £dward the Confessor, was elected to this see during hts 
absence on an embassy to Rome, and was consecrateil in that city. He 
attained the dignity of the mitre in a tempestuous season, but evinced 
#qual courage and discretion in his struggles for maintainii^ the rights 
f)f his see. In the contests between the family of earl Godwin and the 
pious king Edward, Harold, son to that earl, and brother to the 
^ueen, despoiled this church of its valuable ornaments, ejected the 
capons, and took possession of their revenues'. The complaiiits of 
]the bishop met with no redress from the king; but his excellent 
consort, the neglected and sufficing Editba, exerted her feeble infiii- 
eni^ to atone for the ravages committed by her family, and bestowed 
on the bishop the two manors of M^k and Mndgeley. During the 
reign of Harold, our prelate lived ifi banishment ; but, on the access 
^ion pf the conquering William, he was restored to bis see, 9JbA 
regained the greater part of its estates. He had shewn fortitude m 
fulversity, and his prosperous years were dedicated to tbe improvemenl 
pf bis church, and th^ welfare pf l^hose connected with it. Tbe 
number of canons was increased by thb bishop, and a provost ap- 
pointed as their presidents He aliso erected for their use suitable 
domestic buildings, and a cloister. It is said by CoUinson, that he 
likewise *^ enlarged and beautified tbe grand choir <^the cathedral.'* 

Such was the state of this bishopriq ^ thus i:espectable its reveiuies, 
appendant buildings, and pfficial appointments; when John ^ 
Yillula was promoted tp the »e^, A. D. 1088. This churchman ha# 

8 Malmtb. 48. 

3 These act* of violence were not entirely nnptoToked. When Harold was baniahed by 
king Edwajpd, hU estates were coniUcated, and quich of his property wu bestowed 09 thfi 
cathedral of Wells. 

4 This office was abolished by bishop Robert, about the year 1199. 

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been already noticed in our acoount of the abbey.cburch of Bath ; 
but the innovations which be effected require that his character and 
actions should be again placed in review. It is believed that he had 
prcu;tised in earlf life as a physician at Bath ; a circumstance that 
may assist in explaining the memorable predilection which he evinced 
for that city \ After committing considerable dilapidations at WeUs, 
by destroying the dwellings of the eanoos^ and the cloister constructed 
for their U9e, he ventured oa the bold action of removing the see ^ 
and^ renouncing the title by which the head of this diocess bad been 
hitherto distinguished, styled himself bishop of Bath. The principal 
events by which bis episcopal domination was distinguished, have 
been stated in their due place *$ and it only remains to observe, in 
the present article, that the removal of the see did not fail to cause 
serious animosity between the canons of Wells and the monks of 
Bath. The cobtention between these parties was carried to an ex- 
tremity of violence on the demise of Godfrey, the second and final 
prelate who confined his title to the city of Bath. Robert, a monk of 
]>wes, in Sussex, was chosen third bishop of Bath -, but he judged it 
expedient to compromise the existing differences, by making the fol- 
lowing ordinations : " That from henceforth the bishop should be 
nominated from both places, and precedence should be given, in the 
title, to Bath. That, in Uie vacancy of the see, a certain number, 
delegated from each church, should elect their successive bishops. 
That, after tbe confirmation <^ such election, dw bishop elect should 
be enthroned in both churchee, and first in that of Bath. That tbe 
biibop^s chapter should be constituted of boib bodies, so that all 
grants and patents should be confirmed under both their respective 
seals.'* Hus prelate entered, with reprehensible zeal, into the political 
straggles between king Steplien and the empress Maud. His activity 
of ^position was more suitaUy evinced in extensive improvements, 
aft>rded by his meant to tbe cathedrd church of Wells; which struc- 
tore, we may readily suppose, bad experienced entire neglect from his 
immediate predecessors.. 

ll»e prudential modification adopted by bishop Robert, fi>r termi- 
nating all disputes respecting the see of this diocess, shortly expe- 
rienced intciruption. Savaricus, who was advanced to the mitre in 
tbe year 1193, is described as possesdng a r^tless and enterprising 
dispostiioA. When hie sovereign, Richard I. was detained, on his 

5 Mr. Wamer (HUt. of Bath, p, 09.) descfibcf Villala «• « a man who, though nothing 
moK than an empiric, had found meant to accumulate a large fortune by practising phytic, 
and impoaing upon the ignorance and credulity of the InvaUda who locked to the healing 
waters of Bath, in search of ease and health." 

« Hiatoiy, Im. of Balk CMhedml, page* (f) and (g), 


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WSLL8 CATHEDRAL, [a. D. 1366. 

return from Palestine, by the emperor of Germany, this bishop, who 
was related to the emperor, offered himself as one of the hostages for 
securing the payment of the captive king's ransom. As a recompense 
for this service, he obtained from Richard a grant for the abbey of 
Glastonbury to be thenceforwards attached to the bishopric of Bath 
and Wells. He subsequently removed the see, and styled himself 
bishop of Glastonbury. It was not likely that this act of aggrandize- 
ment should long remain uncontested. In the time of his successor, 
Joceline Troteman (often termed de Wells, from the place of his 
nativity), the monks of Glastonbury earnestly struggled for a restora- 
tion of their ancient abbatial form of government; and nltimately 
obtained that privilege. The bishop then renewed the conciliatory 
title of Bath and Wells ; in which judicious practice he has been 
imitated by all who have succeeded him on the episcopal throne of 
this diocess. Few names in our list of prelates are more deserving of 
local veneration, or general respect, than that of Joceline de Wells. 
It has been often remarked in previous sections of this historical pub- 
lication, that the piety of the early and middle ages, however simple 
and sincere, was chiefly manifested in benefactions to the splendour 6f 
church-architecture, and to the increase in number and opulence of 
ecclesiastics connected with the performance of religious ceremonials. 
Of such a character we accordingly find the modes in which bishop 
Joceline evinced his zeal for the interests of Christianity^ He founded 
several prebends, and was, in other respects, a munificent contributor 
to the revenues and prosperity of the see. The principal efforts of his 
liberality were directed towards the improvement of the cathedral 
buildings ; and the work there performed under his patronage, still 
remains, and acts as a noble and grateful monument to his memory. 

Walter Giffard, who was consecrated to this see in 1264, was 
appointed lord high chancellor in the following year, and was after- 
wards translated to York. Several succeeding prelates also filled with 
credit high offices in the state ; but our attention is more immediately 
demanded to such as have attained a local interest, by an exemplary 
practice of their pastoral duties, or by other circumstances closely 
connected with the diocess. Robert Bumell, elected A. D. 1275, 
amassed a large fortune, whilst exercising the duties of treasurer and 
lord chancellor of England. He sat at Wells for eighteen years, and 
considerably augmented the palatial residence. Ralph de Salopia, 
promoted hither in 1329, is recorded as an eminent benefactor to the 
buildings of his see. By him was founded the college of vicars ; and 
he is, likewise, said to have erected several mansions on the episcopal 
estates. John Harewell, consecrated in 1366, was chaplain to Edward 

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A. D. 1547.] 80MERSBT8HIRB. 

Che black prince. He contribdted largely to the erection of the south- 
west tower of the cathedral, and towards the expense of glazing the 
great western window. Nicholas Bubwith, translated to this see from 
Salisbury, is commemorated as a great benefactor to our church. 
Thomas de Beckington, consecrated in 1443^ was a native of Beck- 
iugton^ in Somersetshire. After receiving the rudiments of education 
in Wykeham's school, at Winchester, he was removed to New Col- 
^gt, Oxford', and afterwards became chancellor of that university. 
He assisted in the instruction of king Henry VI. and received several 
valuable preferments, as rewards for the care which he evinced in the 
exercise of that duty.. A large part of the wealth which he acquired 
in the diligent discharge of his numerous important offices, he liberally 
employed in public works. His munificence was not confined to the 
buildings of his see, although it was chiefly directed towards them '. 
In regard to the . cathedral of Wells, he shares with bbho^ Joceline 
in the fame of splendid benefaction. Oliver King re<iuires particular 
notice in the history of this diooess, on account of the attachment 
which he exhibited towards the city of Bath, and the memorable 
attention wiiich.he paid to the mpnastic buildings of that place. Ifhe 
abbey-church of Bath had been considered, by many preceding pre* 
lates, chiefly as a nominal appendage to the dignity of then- mitre. 
This prelate, induced, as is said, by " a vision which he beheld,*' 
commenced the re-edification of that neglected structure. Bishop 
King was succeed by Adrian de Castello, who entered England 
on a mission from the pope. This agent of the court of Rome 
viewed the bishopric merely as a profitable source of revenue, 
and contented himself with drawing from it pecuniary emolument. 
He was deprived of his numerous preferments, for plotting against 
pope Lep X. ', but our diocess gained no immediate advantage from 
bis fall. Throughout four years the see was held in commendam by 
cardinal Wobey j who had, indeed, previously rented its produce of 
the sordid Adrian. In the time of William Knight, elected to this 
see A. D. 1541, an act of parliament was passed, vesting the right of 
election in the dean and chapter of Welb, who were thereby consti- 
tuted one sole chapter. 

It is a painful, but an imperative, duty, to place the brand of his- 
torical obloquy on those who have disgraced a situation, calculated to 
call forth the dignity of religious and moral excellence in an exem- ' 
plary form. The name of William Barlow compels us to the perform- 
ance of this obligation. He was promoted to this see in 1547> having 

7 Amongst namefoof inttanccs of hit public tpiritf and friendly ditpotition towards archi- 
tectural improvements, it may be noticed that be was a great contributor to the buildings of 
Lincoln College, Oxford. 

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prefioiisly sat as bishop of St. Asaph and St. Bavid*8. In the history 
of the latter see we found cause to denounce him as a man oi a 
rapacious and unprincipled character*. Unhappily he hrought wHb 
him his evil propensities, when protaiottd to this more affluent diocess^ 
By sale, and by interested exchange, he greatly injured the revenues 
of the see, and appears to have regarded many of its buildings aaercly 
as articles of personal aggrandizement. These unjustiiiable actions wew 
performed during the reign of Edward VI. ; and, on a change of admi-' 
nistration, when Mary acceded to the throne, he judged it i»p«diait 
to fly to a foreign country, universally execrated, and (which to tucb 
a man was, too Ukely, an affliction still more severe) scn*cely enrieked^ 
We have the consolation of not findmg his parallel la our dio«esan 
annals. Amongst the prelates who have occupied this see siaoe the 
reformation of religion, many have been distinguished for mental 
energy, and for the brightest perfection of correct ufiderstanding,— 
consistency of moral conduct. 

James Montagu, promoted hither A. D. 1609, resided much at 
Wells, in the exoxise of a due pastoral care; and improved, at a con* 
iiderable expense, the palaces of Wdh iind Banwell. The loyidty 
of William Laud, and the firmness which be evinced in times of peco* 
Mar trial, induce us to lament his fate, and to took with tenderness 
on his failings. This distinguished prelate was tra<islated' hither from 
St. David's, in 1626; and Was advance from this see to London, 
A. D. 1628. His subsequent elevation to Canterbury, and his digni- 
fied fall, are narrated in the general history of the country. Willi«n 
Pierce, removed to this see from Peterborough, in the year 1688, 
encountered the shock of those innovations vrhich were attendant on 
the civil war of the 17th century. This respectable prelate was de- 
prived of his mitre by the parliament ; and important iijuries were 
inflicted on the bttil(fings of the see, by the agents of fanaticism. One 
Cornelius Burgess obtained possession of the palace at that melancholy 
juncture, and reduced the structure to a state of ruin, for the purpose 
of sell|ng the materials. The gatehouse he preserved entire, but con- 
tnmeliously let it out a^ an habitation for persons of the lowest order. 
Bishop Pierce emulated the best of the deprived prelates in patience 
under long suffering, and regained his ecclesiastical sway, much to the 
satisfaction of his diocess, on the restoration of Charles II. Few 
succeeding prelates are more deserving of minute biographical attention 
than Thomas Kenn, or Ken, who was promoted to this see by the 
direct appointment of his sovereign, in 1684. This conduct redounds, 
in a marked degree, to the honour of the Tdatile Chtrlet, as Dr. 

8 HUt. of Cathedrtl Church of St. J>vi\d*§, page fV< 

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A« D. 1691.] SOMBRSBtsmitt. 

Keim had reeently evinced an unbending dignity of demeatiour^ by 
relasfng to resign a house which he held at Winchester, as prebend of 
that catSiedraU for the use of Eleanor Gwynne, during a visit of the 
oourt. He attended the king in his last hours, and prevailed on the 
exfinng Charles to receive a visit, at that awful season, from the 
osatort whose society he had despised in times of health and gay 
mideipation. According to the Aridtidly biographer of onr prelate, 
the king " asked pardon*' of the injured Katherme, " and had her 
forgtmKts before he died.** Dr. Kerni advanced some of the best 
iBterests of bis diocess, by inttitutii^ schools in the principal towns ; 
and for the instmotioD of the poor children educated in those semina- 
ries, fae wrote and published his useful " Exposition of the Church 
Gtfteohkm/* He was one of the seven bishops committed to the 
Tower of Lond<^n, for opposing the reading of king James*s deciara- 
tien of indulgence*. Whilst thus disdainful of the frowns of tyranny, 
wheto engaged in support of the church, he cherished rigid notions 
respeefmg the daties of aHegiance; and, on the accession of king 
William, he retired, and ** relinquished his revenue, though not his 
csre',** with a clear conscience and a generous mind. The pressing 
neoestitks of lifiB How oompelled him to dispose of the whole of his 
property, exempt his books. He subsequently retired to Longleat, in 
Wiltshire, the house of his patron, lord Wfr^mouth, where he lived in 
studious seclunon'*. Queen Anne highly respected his real worth, 
and granted to him a yearly pecuniary assistance; which honourable 
allowance he expended in charitable donations. This zealous, faith- 
ful, and pious man, died in the year 1710, at the age of seventy. 
threes*. Dr. Kidder, who succeeded to the bishopric, and was con- 
8e<srafed A. D. 1691, unhappily perished, together with his lady, by 

9 It was the severe fate of bishop Kenn to be suspected of disloyalty by the bigoted Janes, 
dUd to be r^ted by the protestant successor of that weak king, through an apprehension of 
his aUachment to the •< old** forms of religion. The dislike which he incurred, on both occasions. 
Would appear, now that time has lessened ereiy incentive to passionate decision, to have sprung 
^aa his honest warmth of feeHng, and rigorous ^dain of alt courtly modificati6ns of opinion. 
The purpose of biography, in delineating peculiarities of character, is often greatly advanced by 
» single arid brief anecdote. The following would appear to be of that compfexion :— The humane 
mind of bishop Kenn was impelled to a generous sympathy with the sufcriAgv of those pecsons 
who were imprisoned, in consequence of being taken in rebeUien against the ruling power, under 
tke didce of Motfntoutfa. The compassion which he bestowed on these unhappy prisoners gave 
much oiience at court, and all his subsequent actions were watched with a ctose and jealous eye. 
It is related by his biographer, (Short Account of the Life of Bishop Kenn, p. 17) that, ** upoB 
the preaching ot one of the two termens now published, end in the king's own chapel at Whiter 
Hall (which sermon seems wholly intended against both the popUh and /onattcfc factions, then 
unked it court}) and it being misrepresented to the king (who had not been present at divin« 
service), but sending for the bishop and closetting biA on the occasion, received nothing fai 
ttMwer, but this fatherly reprimand i that if Jdi mt^eity had not negUcted Ms own dafy qf bemg 
fircNal, Ms sneaiies had Missed tMt opportmOty if occmUng kirn .—whereupon he was dismissed.** 

10 An excellent portrait of bishop Kenn is still preserved at Longleat, now the residenee of 
tie marquis of Bftth. 

11 The ab«ve parti<!alars are di&efl^ derived from '* a Life of Bisboj^ Ken, jNiblished by hi* 
descendant, W. Hawkins, esq.** 


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the fall of a part of the palatial building, in the memorable storm of 
1703. Amongst several excellent prelates who adorned this see-in tile 
18th century^ must be gratefully remembered the names of Hoopo* 
and Wynne, both of which bishops were promoted to this diocess finom 
that of St. Asaph. The equally estimable divines, Willes and Moss, 
had previously occupied the episcopal chair of St. David's. Richard 
Beadon, D. D. our present respected prelate, was translated hith^ 
from Gloucester, in the year 1802. 

The cathedral church of Wells is considered, by most examiners, 
to be one of the noblest piles of ancient architecture amongst those 
numerous splendid structures which act as impressive memorials oi 
the piety and munificence of our forefathers. Unlike the majority of 
cathedral- buildings in this country, the fabric now under conslderatioii 
contains, however, no vestiges of Anglo-Norman workmanship. The 
building is uniformly in the pointed style, whilst it displays several 
modifications of that luxuriant character of architecture. The exterior 
is conspicuous for grandeur of design and richness of ornament. Its 
august towers impress feelings of reverence, on a first and distant 
view : the mind is filled, and gratified, by its variety and splendour of 
parts, on a closer inspection. It is believed that the mt>st compre- 
hensive view of this fine edifice is presented on the south-east, a point 
of prospect which we have selected for one of our engravings. The 
lady- chapel — the varied windows of the choir, and those of the tran- 
septs, and the elaborate beauty of the great central tower, are there 
exhibited, whilst an idea is conveyed of the solemn effect of the whole, 
when combined as one venerable architectural object. 

No single part of the exterior is calculated to excite the attention 
so forcibly as the west front. This face of the building emulates the 
western fronts of the cathedrals of Peterborough and Lincoln, in a 
gorgeous display of the statues of tutelary saints and benefactors; tha 
niches in which they are placed being generally adorned by rich 
canopies, supported by slender pillars of polished Purbeck marble. 
The sculpture is, in the greater number of instances, well executed ; 
but there is no direct testimony for believing it, as is commonly re- 
ported, to be the work of Italian artists. The figures are nearly of the 
size of life, and are chiefly placed on three stories, made by different 
divisions of prominent buttresses. The number of niches in the re- 
spective divisions is various, some containing only one, and not any 
comprising more than four. On a fourth story is a continued range 
of niches, filled with unattired figures, rising out of tombs and 
graves, intended (although not uniformly with a decorous solemnity 
of design) to represent the awfiil hour of resurrection. The whole 

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A. ]>. 1239.] . SOMERSETSHIRE. 

of this Upper series of sculpture is indifferently executed, and not en- 
titled to attentive inspection. A considerable number of basso-relievos 
is, likewise, dispersed in every amenable part. The erection of this 
superb portion of the structure, is principally ascribed to bishop Joce- 
line, in the early part of the 13th century 5 at which time a taste for 
covering the facades of cathedrab with rows of niches, devoted to the 
enshrinement of statues, first grew into use. The statues, when last 
accurately examined, amounted in number to 153 ; and, although 
tbey have in many instances experienced mutilation and decay, they 
still rank amongst the least injured of similar bold and beautiful ex- 
amples of an ancient fashion in the decoration of ecclesiastical struc« 
tares **. . In the centre of this front, over the door of entrance, is a 

Ift The cotiotity of the ordinary, as well ai the antiquarian examiner, has been naturally 
excited towards a discovery of the persons intended to be commemorated by the numerous 
figures presented on this facade. The devastating hand of time, almost equally destructive of 
traditionary history, and of worlu carved in stone, has left no authentic traces towards the 
accurate designation of each sculptured personage. But, In the absence of direct testimony, 
some light has been borrowed from an ancient writer, kided by the ingenious observations of i 
modern antiquary, which are of sufficient interest for insertion in this place, although it may 
be necessary to hold in remembrance that they are candidly submitted by their respectable author, 
ttaelateMr. Oough, as probable surmises, rather than as conclusive information,— William of 
Worcester (I tin. p. 885), noticing this cathedral, describes the sculpture at the west-end as 
consisting of " rows of great images, of the New and the Old Law,** In the course of his remarks 
upon this intelligence, Mr. Gough, in an essay inserted in Carter's ** Specimens of Ancient 
Sculpture and Painting," observes, ** that it is evident many subjects of the sculptures there 
presented, are taken from the iVete Law, or New Testament, beginning at the bottom with the 
centre statue over the west door, representing the Virgin and Child, or the Deity ; over these 
the Father and Son, or it may have been the Father crowning the Virgin, and ascending through 
a series of saints, angels, and apostles, to Christ on the top.— Thus far, at least, coincides with 
William of Worcester's description. It may not be altogether so easy to follow him i|A the 
statues which, he says, were taken from the Old Law, or Old Testament. Though it viras no 
uncommon thing to borrow groupes of Old Testament history, to adorn religious buildings, we 
do not recollect any instances of single figures borrowed from it j nor, indeed, is it so easy to 
adapt characteristics to such figures, as to those taken from the New Testament, where every 
apostle, or saint, has his, or her, attribute. And it is further to be observed, that in the west 
lh>nt, are intermixed some few figures of different style;— female, crowned and mitred." - 

In regard to *' three great buttresses, with three rows of great images of the Old Law,** 
mentioned by William of Worcester, on the north-west side (in occidentali et boriali parte) Mr. 
Gough remarks that, ** if we shoulc\ admit some of them to represent kings and propheu of the 
Jews, still there will be found, intermixed. Christian kings, bishops, and warriors, together with 
several female statues, without any distinguishing attribute, except crowns. If, again,' we 
apply this reasoning, to buttresses, placed by William of Worcester on the south-west side, and 
charged with images of the New Law, we shall find all the statues to be of a period posterior, 
indeed, to the New Testament history, but strictly Christian, and so far conformable to his idea 
of the New Law." Tlie figures " siding the great west door," Mr. Gough mentions as being 
chiefly kings and bishops, who were benefactors to, or who filled, this see.— "The number of 
sovereigns of Wessex, from, and including, Ina, who founded this see, to the annexing of that 
kingdom to his own by Ethclbert, was eight; and we find just that number among the statues 
in one division, viz. seven kings, and one queen, Sexburga, who stands alone. Two other 
queens there represented, may be the two consorts of Ina, Ethelburga, and Desburgia. Then 
with regard to bishops of this see, if we follow Godwin's catalogue we shall find Jocehjne was the 
twenty-first in succession, from the first establishment of the see ; and, accordingly, we may 
discover in two divisions, just that number of mitred figures, sitting and sending. The only 
reason for supposing bishop Jocelyne to be represented by the pontifical figure, sitting alone, at 
the top of the front of the south-west buttress, is the circumstance of having a coat of arms under 
his feet ; though it must be confessed, we are not certain what were his family arms. There are 
six more mitred statues, on the return of buttresses at the north-west angle. These I would 
suppose to be some of the sixteen who succeeded Jocelyne, to Beckingtun, the next great 
benefactor to this church ; and that the others once occupied niches, now vacant, on this fine 
front. The figures which remun after th6 several assignments, must be lost in the crowd of 
monks, nuns, knights, and nbblemen, connected with the church, who have nothing to piake 
tiiem oatlive their own, or the nearest succeeding age." 


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WBLL8 CATHBDAAL, [A, »V 1415. 

window of lofty proportions ; and the whole is flanked by towers, 
which are additions to the first design, and are not in a correspondent 
style of architecture. The tower on the south-west was erected by 
bishop Harewell, with the aid of several piont i^ontrihatora, abont 
1366, and now contains eight bells, much celebrated for harmony of 
tone ; that on the north-west was built under the notice of bishop 
Bubwith, in the year 1415. 

The great quadrangular tower, placed in a central situation o?er 
the area formed at the intersection of the nave, the choir, and tlM 
west, or principal transept, derives an august character from its massy 
proportions, whilst the objection of a gloomy and preponderating 
weight of aspect, likely to proceed from that cireumstanee, is obvkted 
by the numerous lights pierced in its spacious fronts, and the plenitude 
of ornaments with which it is enriched. At the angles are quadran* 
gnlar turrets, adorned with statues in an upper division, and terttn- 
Bating in crocheted pinnacles/ A pierced and embattled parapet maat* 
rounds the platform of the tower ; and, at equal distances between the 
angular turrets, rise over each front of the elevation tw6 aspiring pin^ 
nacles, embellished with crockets. The north side of the cathedral 
presents several architectural features of peculiar attraction. The 
north porch, or principal door of entrance in this division of the stmc<^ 
ture, commands the admiration of the spectator, and is not less curious 
in particular parts than striking from general display. Few dodrways, 
of the pointed form, are of so massy and elaborate a character. The 
erch is composed of numerous receding members, amongst which are 
conspicuous two broad and bold mouldings, exhibtting the dnpltcaCed 
zigzag of the circular, or debased Roman, style, interspersed with 
leaves ; and is sustained, on each si^, by numerous slender columns, 
having three unomamented torus bands near the centre of each shaft. 
The capitals present foliage, some grotesque carvings, and the sculp* 
tared representation of a human figure, bound and pierced to death by 
the arrows of several assailants. This piece of historical sonlptive, 
which extends through several capitals, is possibly allusive to the mar« 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian. On the facing of the north porch, placed 
one on each side of the arch of entrance, are two pieces of sculpture, 
rudely executed, which would appear to be relics of a more ancient 
edifice, and were probably inserted hcie, as venerable antiquities, on 
the renovation of the pile. 

Proceeding towards the east, on the same side of the building, 
the light and beautiful divisions of the octangular chapter«honte, «!« 
though detached from the architectural outlines of the main structure, 
assist in completing its attractions aiid grandeur. The heads of the 

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*. D. 1389.J SOMSaSBTSHIBB. 

windows are enriched by intricate ramifications of stone- work ; the 
parapet is pierced in two divisions/ the lower comprising arches of the 
pointed form^ and that above presenting a range of qaatrefoil com« 
partments. At each angle rises a turret^ richly embellished after it 
tomioants the parapet^ and terminating in a crocketed pinnacle. The 
lady-chapel^ attached to the east end of the cathedral, is greatly dis- 
similar in style to other parts of the exterior, but is so evidently an 
addition to the original design, that the expanded Windows and rami- 
fied mnllions of the fifteenth century, may be allowed their j as t share 
of admiration, without the alloy of objections, as to a want of con-* 
gndty in styles, by the most fastidious architectural antiquary. The 
whole of the cathedral, with the exception of ornamental particulars^ 
is composed of free-stone, dag in the neighbourhood of Boulting, a 
Tillage about seven miles from Wells, towards the east. 

Previous to a notice of the interior, we shall mention the chief 
constituent parts into which this cathedral church is divided. Its plan 
comprises a nave, with two side aisles 5 tiorth and south transepts, 
intersecting the nave and choir ; ^ choir with side aisles ; and a short 
transept at the eastern extremity of the choir. To the east of the 
ftltar is the lady-chapel ; and, on the south side of the church, is 
a spacious cloister. Concerning the architectural history of this 
cathedral, few ancient docaments, of a satisfactory character, 
bave hitherto been discovered and communicated to the public. It 
Is, indeed, a subject of just regret, that the history and descrip- 
tion 6f so fine and interesting a structure, should have been treated 
with unfeeling neglect by an author who undertook the task of 
GoUectingy for public information, the principal historical and de- 
icriptive particulars relating to that western district of England ifi 
which the city of Wells is situated. Mr. Collinson, the historian 
of Somersetshire, notices the architecture of this chufch in terms- too 
general to impart information, or even to gratify curiosity 5 and 
prodoees no authorities for the dates to which he ascribes certain parts. 
From the results of his hasty statement* we. are, however, justly 
taught to believe, that the " greater part of the building, as it noW 
stands, was erected by Joceline de Welles, about the y^ar 1^9.** Mf, 
GoD^h, in that ccmtribution to Garter*s '* Specimens of Ancient Sculp- 
tare and Painting," which we have quoted in a previous page/echoes 
Godwin in observing, that bishop Joceline took down the greatest part 
of the church, from the presbytery westward, and rebuilt it on a mor« 
apacioas and beautiful plan. In a local publication, which is useful in 
many particulars, and demands especial notice in the present place, on 
account of the infltieuce v^hich it necessarily obtains over the opinion 

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of casual visitors, it is said that '^ the most ancient part of the building 
is the nave, transept, side aisles, and a part of the choir, as far as the 
third window towards the east.'* These parts the author aseribes to 
bishop Robert, whose works, in regard to this edifice, were performed 
about the year 1150. Whilst no writer claims authority for his 
assertions, either in documents preserved in the episcopal archives, or 
in the pages of such ancient chroniclers as are printed, or are otherwise 
accessible to public inspection, an eligible estimate of the probable eras 
at which the respective portions of the fabric were erected, must' be 
attained, in the most desirable way, by an examination of the prevailing 
architectural character. We believe that, after a faithful notice, 
however brief, of the different parts of the building, the reader will 
have little hesitation in concluding that the existing fabric is princi- 
pally the work of the two bishops Joceline and Beckington, although 
occasional erections, alterations, and improvements have been made by 
intervening prelates, in attention to the notions which obtained in 
their times, concerning a due magnificence in ecclesiastical architectuie. 

The nave is divided from its aisles by arches uniformly pointed, 
and of a contracted, but regular, form. These arches are sustained 
by eighteen weighty and clustered columns, nine on each side. The 
bases are plain, but the capitals are charged with much florid orsa- 
ment, comprising a great variety of grotesque figures. Above is a tri- 
forium, the arches of which are pointed, and of regular construction. 
The groining of the ceiling consists of simple intersecting ribs, or 
cross* springers, which lise from corbels projecting between the 
windows. The same terms of delineation apply to the principal, or 
western, transepts. It is almost superfluous to observe, that such 
architectural features as are here described bear no reference to the 
reign of Stephen, at which time a re-edification of the cathedral took 
place under bishop Robert. The pointed style was liot then methodised 
into an order 5 and, even in the subsequent reign of Henry IL had not 
passed the boundary of a crude and imperfect character, as may be 
instanced in the choir of Canterbury cathedral . On the contrary, we 
have, in the nave of the present building, strong indications of simi- 
litude to the cathedral of Salisbury, erected in the reign of Henry 111. j 
in the time of which king, A. D. 1^239, the renovated structure of 
Wells was newly dedicated by bishop Joceline. The tower is supported 
by four massy columns, strengthened by inverted arches. The sides are 
ornamented by tiers of small arches, divided by slender pillars ; and 
the vaulting is richly decorated, the cross-springers proceeding from 
corbels which project from the supporting columns. 

The choir is lighted by twelve windows, in the pointed form, bc- 

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sides a large and splendid window at the east end. Six of these win- 
dows (three on each side, towards the east) are evidently of a later 
date than those in the western part. The whole of the choir appears, 
indeed, to have undergone progressive and important alterations. Its 
decorations are, at present, of an elaborate description, and the sides 
exhibit a gorgeous display of tabernacle-work, pinnacles, and the 
countless variety of minute embellishments imparted to English archi- 
tecture by the best-encouraged artists in the most prosperous days of 
that luxuriant style. The groining of the roof no longer exhibits the 
simplicity observable in the nave. The ribs branch into tracery- work, 
and are abundantly ornamented, at their intersections, with foliated 
orbs and various devices. Parts of the improvements bestowed on the 
choir may be safely attributed to John de Drokensford, Ralph de Sa- 
lopia, and John Harewell, all which bishops are commemorated as 
contributors to the cathedral buildings in the fourteenth century j but 
other divisions bear incontestible marks of the munificence of bishop 
Beckington. The great east window occupies the whole breadth of 
the building, and consists of seven compartments. The head of the 
arch is enriched by tracery, and the whole is filled with painted glass. 
On the sides of the choir are stalls for the dignitaries, canons, and 
-prebendaries, separated by slender pillars of wood, and surmounted 
with canopies. The episcopal throne, on the south side, is a beautiful 
fabric of stone, constructed under the direction of bishop Beckington ; 
but disfigured, and rendered equivocal as to its material, in the view 
of the cursory observer, by a thick coat of paint. 

The area between the high altar and the lady-chapel is occupied 
:by several clustered columns, of slender proportion, sustaining arches, 
and constituting a curious, and, perhaps, unique feature of architec- 
tural arrangement. The chapel of the virgin is open to view from the 
east end of the choir, and is one of the most richly- adorned, and elegant, 
of similar extraneous erections. This beautiful structure was built under 
the direction of .bishop Beckington, and is lighted by five windows. 
The heads of the arches are ramified into numerous compartments, of a 
trefoil form, and the whole are filled with painted glass. The vaulting 
of the roof is finely groined, the ribs uniting in the centre, and their 
intersections being variously adorned. Several chapels of a less im- 
portant character are contained within the walls of the cathedral. To 
the east of the bishop's throne, on the south side of the choir, is a 
small but highly- ornamented chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, in which 
is placed the tomb of bishop Beckington. This is a table monument, 
of open workmanship, displaying, on the upper slab, the effigies of 
the deceased, and revealing, in the lower compartment, an awful me- 

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\7ELLS CAT«ffO&AL> [^i O. 1610. 

morial of the mutable state of humanity-Hi ghastly skeleton^-^xpres- 
Mve of the forlorn coodition of that form> wheo in the last stage of 
decay, which commanded so mach respect when animated by healthy 
and attired in robes of pontifical dignity. In the upper part of the 
nave, on the south side, and occupying the space between two of the 
pillars which divide that part of the cathedral from its aisle, is an ele- 
gant chapel erected by the executors of bishop Beckington, in the 15th 
century. This fabric is composed of stone. The ceiling is groibed > 
and, on the principal face of the structure, are five figures, finely sculp- 
tured, and placed in niches shrmounted with delicate tabernacle- work. 
On the opposite side of the nave, and likewise filling the space between 
two of the clustered columns, is a sepulchral chapel, devoted to the 
memory of bishop Bubwith, in which that prelate lies interred. 

The monuments are numerous, and several possess considerable 
interest. The memorials erected to the bishops Bubwith and Beckingcon, 
have been already noticed. Several of the early prelates were also, with 
-exemplary propriety, interred on the spot which had claimed the 
exercise of their extensive pastoral duties -, and the same walls enclose 
the remains of many excellent bishops in succeeding ages, down tO a 
recent period. William de Marchia, bishop of Wells, who died A. D. 
1302, lies beneath a monument of the altar form, which supports his 
effigies in the attire of pontifical dignity. Bishop Harewell, noticed in 
a preceding page as a contributor to the buildings of his episcopal 
church, is buned in the south ais]e of the choir^ At the feet of hb 
effigies are placed two bares, the rebus of his name. The monumental 
tributes to bishops interred here in periods subsequent to the reforma- 
tion, demand notice from the frequent eminent worth of the persons 
commemorated, rather than from splendour of design or excellence of 
execution. There are various monuments to [«'ivate persons, which 
would require attention in a more extended topographical survey. 

The inscription on one of these possesses so much genuine pathos 
and elegance, that no account of our cathedral can approach to- 
wards a satisfactory character, without its insertion. The monument to 
which we« allude is erected to the me^tory of Thomas Linley, esq. 
who died in the year 1795 ; and likewise to that of two of his 
daughters (one of whom was wife of the late R. B. Sheridan, esq.) and 
an infant grand-daughter. The poetical inscription is presently 
beneath. ** 

14 " In Uiit blest'd pile, amid whose favoring gloom 
Fancy itlU loves to goard her votary's tomb. 
Shall I withhold what all the virtues claim. 
The sacred tribute f a father's name ? 
And yet, bless'd saint 1 the skill alone was thine 
To breatht with truth the tributary line | 

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Quitting the cathedral for a notice of its q>pendant baildings^ die 
cbapter-house is first entitled to consideration. This structure adjoins 
the north transept^ and is of an octangular form. The roof is finely 
vaulted^ and supported by a central column of Purbeck marble^ 
clustered, and affording in its apex the source whence the ribs of tlie 
groining diverge. The walls are embellished with canopied niches, 
eorresponding in number with the stalls in the choir. Beneath this 
building is a crypt, or vaulted apartment. The groin-work in the 
roof of this division of the structure (locally said to have been formerly 
sited as the sacristy) springs from the basement part of the same 
clustered column which supports the roof of the chapter-room. The 
cloister is on the south side of the nave, and communicates with the 
trmosept. The east side of this religious ambulatory is ascribed to the 
time of bishop Bubwith, and contains, in an upper story, a library, 
Ibuoded by bishop Lake, in 1620. The south and west divisions of 
the cloister wore chiefly erected during the prelacy of Beckington. la 
various parts of the buiUMng are observable his accustomed rebus— once 
•opposed to be ingenious, although now deemed puerile — a beacon, 
placed in a ton ! 

The present members of this cathedral, are, besides the bishop, a 
dean (with the prebend of Curry annexed) ; a precentor ; a chancellor ^ 
a treasurer 5 three archdeacons ; a sub- dean ) forty- six prebendaries ; 
five priest- vicars; eight lay- vicars 5 six choristers j one, sacrist; three 
assistant clerks, and certain inferior officers. The diocess of Bath and 
Welb is divided into the three archdeaconries of Wells, Taunton, and 
Bath ; which are again subdivided into thirteen deaneries, and four 
liundred and eighty-two parishes. 

The bishop's palace presents, in its outline and more ancient parts, 
|i curipus and impressive memorial of the repulsive manners of former 
ages. The walls surrounding this building enclose seven acres of land, 
and ure accoo^nied in their circuit by the additional protection of a 
fosse, or moat. The whole structure was originally of a corresponding 

The mem*iy of departed worth to save. 

And snatch the fading laurel from the grate : 

And, oh ! ray lUtert, peaceful be your reit. 

Once more reposing on a fkthePs breast ; 

You, whom be IotM, whose notes so soft, so clear. 

Would sometimes wildly float upon his ear. 

As the soft lyre he touch*d with mournful grac^ 

And Recollection's tear bedew'd his face. 

Yes, most belov'd, if eT'ry gratefbl Care 

To soothe his hours, his eT*ry wish to share i 

If the fond mother and the tender wife 

Could add fresh comfort to his ere of life ; 

if youth, if beauty, eloquence could charms 

Genius delight him, or affection warm ; 

Your*s was the pleasing task from day to day, 

Whilst Heaven approT*d, and Virtue led the way." H^am LhOep, 

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character, and wore the aspect of a castle inhabited by a lay-baron in 
the ages of factions contention. Such a mode of architectore was not 
unusual in the palatial dwellings of prelates, and other dignified church- 
men, in the middle ages, a surviving instance of which practice may be 
noticed in the ancient part of Durham castle ; and the remains of such 
edifices assuredly act as most grateful memorials of the national 
blessings arising from a reform of religion, and an amelioration of 
manners. It appears that an embattled form was bestowed on the 
episcopal palace of Wells, towards the termination of a necessity for 
castellated precautions in this country, by bishop Erghum, who was 
translated hither in the year 1388. The plan of the structure, as 
enlarged and fortified by that prelate, comprehends two courts. On 
the south side of the outer court, or ballium, stood the great hall 5 
which noble room was in length 120 feet, and in breadth nearly 70 
feet. This part of the building is now in a state of ruin, having been 
destroyed by sir John Gates, in the reign of Edward V£. 5 a period at 
which the pretension of religious reform was too frequently nsed as an 
excuse for indiscriminate plunder. The present residence is situated oa 
the east side of the same court, and. is a spacious building, containhig 
a chapel, and many handsome apartments, which have been greatly 
improved by the present bishop. 


LENGTHfrom east to west 371 feet: do. from the west door to the choir 191 feet; do.4>f tJM 
choir, about 106 feet ; do. of the space behiDd the choir to the lady^ihapel 22 l«et; do. of the lady- 
chapel 47 feet; do. of the cross aisles from north to south 135 feet.— BREADTH of the body 
and side aisles Gl feet; do. of the lady^bapel 33 feet ; do. of the west front 235 feet.— HEIGHT <rf 
the vaultmg 07 feet : do. of the great tower ip the middle I60 feet ; do. of the towers in the west 
front ISO teet.— LENGTH of Uie south cloister 155 feet; do. of the east cloister, about 159 feet; 
do. of the west cloister, about l64 feet. 

PtaU I. A View of the Crypt under the Chapter-house. The roof of this apartment is aupported 

by eight substantial columns. In the centre is a massive pier, surrounded by eight small 

pillars, of a similar character with those in other parts of the Crypt. 
Plate 4. The West Front. The numerous Statues on this facade chiefly consUt of the repi^esentap 

tion of scriptural characters, and the effigies of kings, bishops, and various contributors to tl^ 

buildings of the Cathedral. The Towers by which this Front is flanked are of a more receot 

date, as is explained in our history of the Cathedral. 
Plates. A South-east View of the Exterior of the Cathedral, (taken from a gardein belonging to 

Mr. Foster) shewing the whole perspective of the structure itk that direcUon. The octangular 

building at the east end is the Lady-chapel. 
Plate 4. Presents a delineation of the North-east aspect of the Cathedral. The elegant Chapter- 
house, of an octangular form, constitutes a principal feature in this View. 
Plate 5. The Entrance to the North Porch j a spacious pointed arch, supported on each ude by 

eight columns, alternately du))licated and single. Interspersed in the foliage of the capitalsi 

to the left of die entrance, are some curious pieces of sculpture. 
Plate 6. An Interior View from the South Transept, looking towards the west. The Font appesTt 

in the front. In the distance is seen the Nave. Between the columns is shevm part of bishop 

Beckington*s Chapel. 
Plate 7. The West side of the Cloister. At the farther end is an ornamented doorway, leading 

to the South-west Tower of the Cathedral. 
Plate 8. The Chapter-house. The walls of this superb room are decorated with niches, and the 

apartment U lighted by eight windows, the beads of which are filled with rich traceiy. 


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*»^ The iiaUc Utter* indicate the pages marked at the bottom of the left tide ; 
thus (a) (Jb) hie and the tetter N. for note. 

Ina, KiBgoftheWest8azoiit»«; hit reign 

Atbelmot, llrat bishop of Weill, fr) pro- 
moted to Canterbuiy, ib. 

Barlow, bishop, e } greatly injured the re- 
venues of the see, /j fled to a foreign country 
nnivenally execrated, ib.~Beadon, Richard, 
present bishop of Wells, A.— Beckington, 
bishc^, «} became chancellor of Oxford Uni- 
▼ertity, ib. ; assisted in the instraction of 
Henry VI, ib. } received several preferments, 
as a reward for the exercise of that duty, ib. ) 
employed a large part of his wealth in public 
works, ib. ; a great contributor to the build- 
ings of Lincoln College, ib. N.— Brithelm, 
bishop, erected the jurisdiction of Glastonbu- 
ry into an archdeaconry,fr.— Bubwith, bishop, 
a great benefactor to the cathedral, «.— Bur- 
gess, Cornelius, obtained possession of the 
palace in the time of the civil wars, /} re- 
duced the structure to a sute of ruin, for the 
purpose of selling the materials, ib. } let out 
the gatehouse as dwellings for the poor, ib. — 
Bumell, bishop, considerably augmented the 
palatial residence, d. 

Castello, bishop, entered England on a mis- 
sion from the court of Rome, e ; deprived of 
bis preferments for plotting against Pope Leo 
X, ib.— Cathedral, notice of the Injuries sus- 
tained by the buildings in the time of the civil 
wars,/; description of, A o ; uniformly in the 
pointed style, k; exterior, ib. j plan, <} win- 
dows of the choir, A } erection of the west 
fipoQt ascribed to bishop Joceline, i j numbers 
of statues on that front, ib. ; Mr. Oough's 
description of those sUtues, ib. N. } wesUm 
towers, k j great or central tower, ib. i north 
ride of the cathedral, ib. ; north porch ib. } 
■colpturedflgure.snpposed to allude to the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, ib. } nave and tran- 
septs, M) groining of the ceiling, ib.} choir, 
descripticm of, jh • } episcopal throqe, «.— i 
Chapels of the Virgin, and St. Mary, •.—Chap, 
ter-house, Xr.— Christianity, early progress of, 
involved in obscurity, a.— Collegiate church of 
Wells, a i founded by king Ina, ib. j erected 
into a bishopric, ft.— Cynewnlf, king of Wes- 
sex, bestowed on the collegiate church eleven 
manaes and farms, a. . 

Diocess, its divisions, p. 

Editha, Queen, 6 ; bestowed on bishop Giso 
the two manors of Mark and Mudgeley, ib. 

GiAurd, bishop, d; Giso, bishop, chaplain 
to Edward the Confessor, fr; elected to this 
aee during his absence on an embassy to Rome, 
ib. ; lived in banishment during the reign of 
Harold, ib. j restored to his see on the acces- 
sion of William, U ib. ; number of canons in- 
creased by him, ib.} said to have enlarged 
and beautifled the grand choir, ib.— Godfrey, 
bishop, c. 

Harewell, bishop, chaplain to Edward the 
black prince, de'} contributed largely to the 
erection of the south-west tower, e} and to- 
wards the expense of glazing the great western 
window, ib.— Harold, king, b } despoiled the 
church of its ornaments, ib. } qected the ^- 
nons, and took possession of their revenues, 
ib.— Hooper, bishop, h. 

distinguished by the promulgation of a legis- 
lative code, ib. } founded a collegiate chnrdi* 
ib. } and rebuilt the Abbey of Glastonbury, ib. 

Kenn, bishop, /} refused to resign a house 
for the use of Eleanor Gwynne, gi attended 
Charles II. in his last hours, ib. } prevailed on 
the king to receive a visit from queen Kathe- 
rine, ib. } instituted schools in his diocess, 
ib. } published an ''Exposition of the Church 
Catechism,'* lb. } one of the bishops com- 
mitted to the tower by James, ib. ; anecdote 
of him, ib. N. } received a yearly pecuniaiy 
assistance from queen Anne, f— Kidder, bishop, 
perished by the fall of part of the palatial 
buildings, A I King, bishop, e; paid attention 
to the monastic buildings of Bath, ib. } com-^ 
mencedthe re-ediflcation of the Abbey church 
of that city, ib.— Knight, bishop, e ) an act 
of Parliament passed in his time, vesting the 
right of election in the dean and chapter of 
Wells, ib. 

Lady chapel, He. — Laud, bishop, /} trans- 
lated hither from St. David's, ib. 

Members, present, of the cathedral, p.— 
Montagu, Mshop, /} improved the palaces of 
Wells and Banwell, ib.^Monuments, bishop 
Beckiugton's in chapel of St. Mary, • o| 
bishop de Marchia's, o} bishop Harcwell's, ' 
ib. ; Thomas Unley's, ib. ; beautiful inscrip- 
tion on the latter monument, ib. N.^Moss» 
bishop, A. 

Palace, episcopal, p g } an embattled form 
bestowed on it by bishop Erghum, q ; ground 
plan, ib. } great hall, ib.— Pierce, bishop, de- 
prived of his mitre by the parliament,/} re- 
gained his ecclesiastical sway on the restora- 
tion, ib. 

Robert, bishop, C} a modification adopted 
by him for terminating disputes respecting 
the see, ib. } entered with zeal into the poll- ' 
tical struggles between Stephen and the Em- 
press Maud, ib. 

Salopia, bishop, an eminent benefactor to 
the cathetlral buildings, d} founded the col- 
lege of vicars, ib. — Savaricus, bishop, e } ob- 
tained from Richard I. a grant for the Abbey 
of Glastonbury to be attached to the bishopric 
of Wells, d } removed the see, and s^led 
himself bishop of Glastonbury, ib. 

Troteman, bishop, often termed de Wells, 
d } renewed the conciliatory title of bishop of 
Bath and Wells, ib. ; founded several pre- 
bends, ib. } a munificent contributor to the 
prosperity of the see, ib. } improved the ca- 
thedral buildings, ib. 

Villula, bishop, 6 } supposed to have prac- 
ticed in early life as a physician at Bath, C| 
Mr. Warner's observations on his character, 
ib. N. } removed the see and styled himself 
bishop of Bath, c. 

Willis, bishop, A.— WIfhelm, bishop, &} 
foundation of a cathedral church laid at Wells 
in his time, ib. } no part of that structure now 
remaining, ib.— Wolsqr* Cardinal, held this 
see in commendam four years, e.— Wynne, 
bishop, k» 

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Of Bath and WelU. | 



Joceline Troteman 




See Vacant. 


William Bitton 




Walter Giffiird 




William Button 




Robert Burnell 




William deMarchia 1293 1 



Walter HaseUhavr 








Ralph de SalopU 




John Barnet 


See Vacant. 

John Harewel 




Walter SkirUw 




Ralph Erghum 




Henry Bowet 


Of Bath, 


Nicholas Bubwith 



John SUfford 




T. de Beckington 



John Phreas 




Robert SUllington 


See Vacant. 

Richard Fox 


Reg. Fiu-Joceline 


OliYcr King 
Adrian de Castelk> 


Of QUutonburif. \ 


S. Barlowinwac 




970 1 








Thomas de Wynlon 1289 



Rob. de Cloppecote 1301 



Robert de Sutton 




Thomas Christy 




John de Irford 




John de Walecot 



John de Dunster 


Ivo 1150 

R. de Spakeston 1 1 6o 
Alexander 1180 

Lionius 1205 

Ralph de Lechlade 1218 
Peter de Ciceter 1220 
William de Merton 1236 
Johannes Saracenus 1241 
Giles de Bridpurt 1253 
Edward de la Knoll 1256 
Thomas de Button 1284 
William Burnell 1292 
W. de Haselsbaw 1295 
Henry Husee 1302 

Joh n de Godelegh 1 305 
Richard de Bury 1332 
Wibertde Littleton 1334 
Walter de London 1335 
John de Carlton 1350 
Stephen dePympell 1361 
John Fordham 1378 


Thomas de Sudbury 1381 

Nicholas Slake 1396 

Henry Beaufort 1397 

Thomas Tuttebury 1401 

Thomas SUnley 1408 

Richard Courtney 1410 

Thomas Karniche 1413 

Walter Metford I4l3 

John Staflford 1423 

John Forest 1425 

Nicholas Carent 1446 

William Witham 1467 

John Ganthorp 1472 

William Cosyn 1498 

Thomas Winter 1526 

Richard Woolman 1529 

Thomas Cromwell 1537 

W. Fits Williams 1540 

John Goodman 1548 

William Turner 1550 

Held in commendam Four 

VearSf hy 
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey 

John Clerk 1523 

William Knight 1541 

William Barlow 1547 

Gilbert Bourne 1554 

Gilbert Berkely 1559 

Thomas Godwyn 1584 

John SUU 1592 

James Montagu 1608 

Arthur Lake 1616 

William Laud 1626 

Leonard Mawe 1628 

Walter Curie 1629 

William Pierce 1638 

Robert Creighton 1670 

Peter Mews 1672 

Thomas Kenn 1684 

Richard Kidder 1691 

George Hooper 1703 

John Wynne 1727 

EdwardWilles 1743 

Charles Moss 1774 

Richard Bbadon 1802 



John de Tellisford 1411 
William Southbroke 1425 

Thomas deLacock 1447 

Richard 1476 

John Cantlow 1489 

William Bifd 1499 

William Holway 1525 

Robert Weston i570 
Valentine Dale 1574 

John Herbert 1589 

Benjamin Heydon 1602 
Richard Meredith 1607 
Ralph Barlow 1621 

George Warburton 1631 
Walter Raleigh 1641 
DeaneryVacant 14 Yean. 
Robert Creighton 1660 
Ralph Bathurst 1670 
William Graham 1704 
Matthew Brailsford 1713 
Isaac Maddox 1733 

John Harris 1736 

Samuel Creswicke 1739 
Hon. F. Seymour 1766 
George W. Lukin 1799 
Hon. H. Ryder, bp. 
of Gloucester 1812 

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20 Entranx^. tc Clvzsters. . . - 

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20 SrSsrest^^Is. Monf 

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cf^'^^ots 'broit^Tii/ ^rom. 

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X asRB are perbaps no authentic records of Christian temples existing 
In any part of Britain earlier than at Winchester. Christianity, indeed^ 
appears to have been promulgated in this country above a century be- 
fore -the building of a church at Caer-Gwent, or White City, the Bri- 
tish appellatiou of the modem Winchester*. But no satisfactory, 
^circumstantial, or contingent evidence can be adduced to disprove the 
traditipn of a Christian church being founded here by a person called 
Xiucius, about A.D. 180. The statement does not rest on such prejudiced 
authority as the compilers of Roman Catholic legends, called a Mar- 
tyrology, but on the broad basis of a generally admitted fact, which 
is received rather as probable than as undeniable. To reject it entirely 
as fabulous would betray more of the pride of scepticism than the love 
<of truth ; to make it an article of religious belief might be compatible 
with Mohammedan superstition, but certainly not with the rationality 
of Christian piety. The possibility and probability of the fact, hi the 
present case, are fully sufficient. *A Christian cannot be displeased 
with the idea of his religion extending so early and so far west, stiU 
less a Briton at the erection of a church in his country. Tha^ there 
was a British tributary prince, named Lucius, we may safely beKeve j 
that he openly embraced Christianity under t^e tolerant auspices of 
the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, seems not m^ns^stent witii 
historical truth and the state of Britain^ notwithstanding the indiscri^ 
minate negation of Carte f ; but wh^th^r h^ w^s the son or grandson of 
the person called Tiberius Claudius Cogidubuus or Cogidunus, or Ca« 
ractacus alias Arviragus, it is s^perfl,uouj9^ hece ^o. inquire. If he \^v$ 

* The oldest writers call it Can ^ni or G%mU^ which Ptoleo^y seem^ to hare adopted in 
OVfvra, and the Romans in Fenu^ ^^/^mrui^. The monks afterwards wrote it fflntoma, and 
the Saxons, who produced the gi^atcst <jhange in every thing» wrote it IVintaH-ceatter, and 
subsequently Wintancestir, Wliji^te^eastjer, iVincestier, and Winchester, 

t Both Cane and Gibbon iteei^, to have formed their opinions on this subject, without Uking 
the trooble of investigating t^e oHgilial authorities ; the latter indeed evinced a motive for dis« 
Wlieving it ; but the assen\op^. or opinions of such men on a point of histoiy, where soun4 
iudgroent is necessary, pass for nought, when they are direcUy coatradicted by such tnii$ ^htl<)« 
V>ph€rs as Usher, 'fitiU^^.^ia^j^ auad fii^rgess. 

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bom about llS^ possibly be derived some knowledge of tbe Cbristian 
religion from the disciples of St. Paul. When advanced in life, it is 
said be and bis queen were baptized by two Jlomaq missionaries, Fuga-* 
tius and Damianus or Duvianns *. In tbis country, tbe (Christian reli- 
gion bad not been so formidable to the Roman government as to in* 
duce its persecution ; Lucius, therefore, availing himself of the peace- 
ful character of the Antonines, might safely indulge bis pious feelings by 
raising a respectable edifice for public worship ip tbe Roman Venta^ 
now Winchester. He has accordingly been considered as the first 
monarch who embraced Christianity, and built a church for its pro- 
fession. To assert, however, that he founded twenty-eight churches 
in as many different cities then extant in Britain, and forming the chief 
seats of the Flamines, or pagan priests^ seems an unnecessary expe^ri- 
mept on human credulity. It tends only to awaken scepticism respecU 
ing the more probable and better authenticated fact, that he raised in 
Venta a Christian church from the ground, although not " upon a scale 
of gri^ndeur and magnificence which has never since been equalled 3*' nor 
did he ** bestow on it the right of sani:tuary, and other privileges f.*' 
The building or existence of the church, which afterwards became a 
bishop's see, is the sole unequivocal fact. !^udborne*8 statement of 
his annexing to it a monastery, with a chapel, dormitory* and refec- 
tory, for monks, long before such societies were either practicable or 
instituted, is rejected even by Dr. Milner himself, as incredible, false, 
and absurd. It is difficult also to attach ipuch credit to bis account of 
tbe cburch*s dimensions, and still more so to its figure. According to 
this writer, the church built by Lucius was in the form pf a crucifix, 
209 paces (at least 600 feet) long, eighty broad, ninety-two high, 
and the transept 18Q paces long. These proportions are neither com- 
patible with the Grecian style of architecture which then prevailed, 
nor with that which has since been called Gothic. This circumstance, 
indeed, may favour the veracity of the historian, as tending to show 
that his statements are not merely theoretical or imaginary probabtii« 
ties X. It is however in the highest degree improbable, that Xiuciiii 

* Perhapf the latter name has been preferred in consequence of that of Damian, a noto* 
liout robber, appearing in the papal pantheon, «nd still worshipped on the <7th of September.' 

t This is asserted by Thomas Rudbome, a Winchester monk of the fifteenth century, who, 
with Westminster Matthew, asserts that Lucius conferred the privileges of Dunwallo Malmu* 
tius (a pagan, supposed to live 500 years before Christ), or the right of asylum on the church of 
Winchester. The absurdity of these pagan privileges, and the utter incredibility of the wholt 
tale of indulging churches and cemeteries with the right of sanctuary or asylum, have been 
Sufficiently exposed by sir H. Spelman, Mr. W. Clarke, and by Dr. Pegge, Archaeol. vol. iii. 
As to th6 privilege of jranctuary, it was instituted by pope Bonifkce V» about 633, the epoch of 
Mohammed, and was an institution worthy of such an impostor. 

t If these innocent coi\iectures, which are here adduced only to convey an idea how Roman 
Catholic writers make out a connected history of their church, were of any importance, 
IM should lay that the British prwce. If nicb a one ever existed, in building a church, erected 


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A.B. 180.] HAMPSHIRB. 

at the same time erected an edifice for the clergy nearly 600 feet long 
and 120 hroad; neither the number nor wealth of the Christian 
teachers of that period, and still less their austere principles, will ad- 
mit of their having such a splendid dwelling. This also is equally irre« 
concilalile with the fact, that temples of Apollo and of Concord were 
situated immediately contiguous to the cathedral, which was dedicated 
ito the Saviour by Fugatius and Duviauus. These missionaries, it is 
aaid, were sent at the request of Lucius, by the Roman bishop Eleu- 
tberius, and they consecrated a bishop for this church, called Dinotus 
or Devotus. However this may be, there cannot be a doubt that the 
religious edifice or structure then raised in Venta formed the model 
for all the subsequent buildings during the days of the Saxons, and that 
a rude imitation of the Roman* pillars and circular arches still ap« 
pears in the transept of the existing cathedral. This is the true origin 
of the opus Romanum or that style of building denominated Saxon, 
and by some superficial writers, Norman f . 

In attributing th^ consecration of this cathedral to Romish mis- 
sionaries, it has been wished to infer hence that the see of Rome had 
always spiritual authority oyer Britain, and that Eleuthertus by this 
act obtained the same power over Winchester, which his successors 
claimed a thousand years later. The very contrary, however, is the 
fact ; and whatever might be the state of religious knowledge in this 
country during the life of Lucius, even bishop Milner is constrained to 
admit, that '' it seemed best to him and his prelates (without any refer* 
ence to the bishop of Rome), that the same hierarchy should be ob- 
served, which had before obtained among the Flamines, or heathen priests. 
According to this, London, York, and Caerleon, became metropolitan 
sees ; and hence Venta, although the favourite of Lucius, and probably 

fi palace for himself a)to, and that both stn)cturei are included in the dimensions given by th« 
monkish chroniclers : otherwise the whole must be a contemptible fabrication j fpr no Chris* 
tian church could then be built of greater extent than the heathen temple I &nd it is well ob- 
served by an enlighteiied critic (Quarterly Rev. No, 6.). that ^* in provincial cities they were 
mere chapels in their dimensions, but of exquisite propoitions and highly adorned, like the 
Haison Quarree at Nimes." 

* ** When the Romans,'* observes governor Pownall, " held possession of our isle, they 
erected every sort of building and edifice of stone, or of a mixture of stone and brick, and 
universally built with the circular arch. The British learned their arts from these masters, and 
they were practised in Britain after they had been loi^t in Fr^^ce, by the ravages and desolation 
which the continent experienced. When the cities of the empire in Gaul and the fortresses on 
the Rhine were destroyed, Constantius Chlorus, 4. D. 298, sent to Britain, and emplojred Bri- 
tish architecu in repuring and re-edifying them. By thus drawing off the British architects 
and mechanics, and by the subsequent devastation of the island, all use and practice of the 
Roman art were lost,'* Archaeol, ix.— As the ScoU and Picts contributed to the expulsion of 
the Romans, so also did they introduce a less expensive mode of building in wood : more Sco^ 
torum non de lapide, $ed de robore. King, Munimenta Antiq. has adduced more particulars in 
proof of the generally received opinion, that the arts of building, like religion, have travelled 
|kom the east to the west. See Haggit's Essay on Gothic Architect, in answer to Milner. 

t It is unanimously admitted, that the only difference between the Saxon and Norman 
Iraildings consists in their dimensions, the latter being of greater magnitude thitn the fonnef i 
|»fit this cannot be called a style or new invention* 

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WmCHBSTBR CATHliDRALi [a. D. 51$. 

the capital* of his dominions, was left destitute of that pre-eminence' 
to which, as the chief city in the west, it was otherwise entitled." 

Venta, it appears, enjoyed its reh'gion and repose above a century, 
till the persecution of Diocletian and Maximian f about 303, brought 
destruction to the cathedral and death on its ministers. Happily their' 
sanguinary rage existed only two years, till checked by Constantins 
Chlorusj and the famous edict of Constantine the{ Great in 312 re-' 
stored the professors of Christianity to the enjoyment of all the rights* 
of humanity and ciril justice. The cathedral of Venta was then (with 
the contributions of the pious) rebuilt, but on a much smaller scale** 
according to Milner, about 313, and said to be dedicated to the ima- 
ginary St. Ampbibailus. Most probably it was only defaced by the 
Maximian destroyers, and not levelled to the ground. The task of 
demolition would have been arduous ; that of reparation appears to 
have occupied ^ve years §. Between the period of its first erection' 
and reconstruction a ^reat decay of art had taken place ; the Gothic- 
age was advancing, and both wealth and science had yielded on the 
one hand to brutal ferocity, and on the other to the most passive and- 
enthusiastic piety. In this condition of things it is not to be expected' 
that Venta experienced much improvement, till it finally fell under the* 
barbarous Jutes || about 516, when its cathedral was converted into a' 

* It is still matter of controrersy where the domtoiosu of Lucius were sitrnteii ^ tW weighty 
of probability seems in favour of Winchester j but as to the time and place of his death and 
burial nothing is accurately known, except that be is not hwrred m his cathedral. SouM-si^' 
pose him interred at Gloucester, others at York j smA the German»n with considerable plavwi- 
l)ility, represent him as propagating the gospel in Bavaria and Switzierhind. With him how- 
ever terminated his dynasty, as the Ilomans afterwards governed directly >]r tl^tr 91"^ officer^ •. 
and not by native tributary princes. , 

t Even Gibbon, with all his zeal to blacken the character and conduct of ihfi Christians . 
and exidt that of the Romans, is obliged to admit that Maximian wa» an ignof:ajat, iU^iteratei^ 
savage, and superstitious military txtor. See Roman Emp. c. xvi. 

t it is worthy of remark, as a proof at least of original intellectual superiority (for the infi- 
dels will not deny that Christianity is more rational and philosophical than the gods of Greece 
and Rome), th^t the first Christian king and first Christian Emperor were both Britons. 

f The story of its being dedicated by biphop Constans, son of the emperor Constaavtine, to^ 
a St, Amphiballus, martyr, Deodg^tus being the sqperior of the clergy, who then served the ca- 
thedral, seems a mere tissue of monkish conjectures, unsupported by any authentic recordg^ 
and unworthy of attention- An ampbihallltu is a large closUc or mantle, like a monk's surpDcei,' 
encompassing the body on bqtfe sides ; such were the sjiepp skins which the monks or hemdta^ 
originally wore as an outside dress* and which were called tuperpelceuiA. Hence this coarse 
piece of clothing has been n^etamorphqsed, jike the sepulchre pf Christ, into a saint, made] 
the converter of a man called St. Alban, and has also been honoured by having the dedication of^ 
Winchester cathedral ascribed tp it. Surely i^ is full tiipe that such fables were banished from . 
the ecclesiastical history offiritaiq. "Certain ii is," avows the papjil bishop Milner, "that 
some martyrs, whose names were unknown, have been inserted in the calendar by a name drawn 
from some adventitious circumstarce, as for example, 3t. Adauctus. See Martyrol. Rom.** If- 
then an infallible church aiid its infallible councils can thus multiply the nupjber of its Gods, j 
thus fabricate names for its unknown saints, is it'surprisii^p; that rational mfu should reject^ 
the whole papal system as a cunningly devised imposture} a disgraceful ai^^ i^iichrlstian per-. 
version of religious truth ? 

II It seems most probable as the Jiites peopled Kent and the Isle of Wight, tl^at they also* 
took possession of Venta, which they called WinUm, with the usual addition pf'«B»fer. Thia, 
must be inferred from Bede, who lived at a period so near the invasion, that he could pcaicely^ 
y>t misled on the mbject. The Jut^s or Jntlabders, wiere a&o called QiotU^ t^d ^f'itct^ yft^Kacii 

(dj •■■ ' ' "'- ■• '-'-'■' • ■■•• 

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jtemple for the preposterous rites of Woden, Tkor> and Fri^ la 
^is state it remained till restored to its original destination by Kinigils^ 
nfter tbi« Saxon Monarch's conversion to Christianity. The propaga- 
tion of religion among the West Saxons has l)een attributed to a S(. 
Birinus^, a man of uncertain origin^ and still more dubious works. 
He is represented as converting the joint-kings Kinigils and Quiutbelia 
in 63o, and from them obtaining the rank of a bishop at Dorchester 
in 636. Birinus we have before noticed in the history of Lincol^ 
X^athedral^ p. (dj, Kinigils is represented as taking down, with more 
/anaticism than prudence, the original church of Winchester, because 
it had been polluted with the exercise of pagan rites, in order to raise 
.up a virgin one in its place. He died however liefore commencing hit 
fkew building, a circumstance rather surprising, since the miracle- 
.working Birinus might have either kept him alive or. raised him from 
jthe dead, to build his church, and. not trust this sacred duty to the 
.word of his pagan sou. Cenowalch violated his promise to his dying 
father, and thought no more of building, till another miracle awake- 

Uie appellationi Vhti and Ge»i$iii Winchester being the capital of the latter. An obterrer can 
•till recognize a difference between the people of Kent and the other parts of England. '* The 
Jutes," says M ilner (in a felicitous conjecture, which atones for the want of historical fidelity), 
'* having reuined their original name of Getae or Goths (conducted by Woden from the Palut 
Mcotis to the chores of the Baltic), were the chief and most respectable of the three Icindred 
tribes (Angles, Saxohs, and Jutes) who invaded Britain. It is probable also, ttom their having 
ifenetrated farther north than the others, thai they were the most valiant } and that they were the 
most handsome is generally allowed by those who have seen their descendants in the Isle of 

•Wight, where ihey have remained in a great measure undisturbed and unmixed.** 

* The tale of Birinus is so ludicrously absurd, and at the same time so well calculated to 
weaken the strong holds of superstition, that Dr. Milner*s version of it merits insertion here. 
Birinos, a priest or a monk, or a something we Icnow not what, was directed by pope Honoriut 
to be ordained by Asterius, bishop of Genoa, and perhaps to learn Saxon in that city prepa* 

'ratory for his mission to Britain. ** Proceeding from Genoa, through France, our apostle came to 
the ■CA'port in the channel, flrom which he was to embark for our island. Here having performed 
the sacred mysteries, he left behind him what is called a corporal [in allusion to the body of 

.Christ], eotttaining the blessed sacrament } which he did not recollect until the vessel in which 
be sailed was some way out at sea. It was in vain to argue the case with the pagan sailors who 

' steered the ship, and it was impossible for him to leave his treasure behind him. In this ei- 
tvemity, suppcMted by a strong faith, he stepped out of the ship upon tl^e waters, which become 

Jirm under hi$/eet [congealed into ice, we suppose, by another miracle far surpassing that of the 
Saviour], and walked in this manner to tlie land ; having secured what be was anxious aboult* 
he returned in the same manner on board the vessel, which had remabted UtOiomrjf [by the to4U 

'^Uiif of the water doubtless !] in the place where he left it. The ship's crew were of the na- 

.|k» to which he wati sent, and being struck [iu well they might] with the miracle which they 
had witnessed, lent a docile ear to his instruction. Thus our apostle began the conversion 
of the West Saxons before he landed upon their territory. This prodigy is so well attested 

•by the mo«t judidotts hittorbas {t, e. monkish conipilers of holy legends], that those who 

• haive had the greatest interest to deny It, have not dmnd openly to do ¥>.*• Hist. Wincheit. 
•iFol. I. p. 90. The concluding assertion Is singularly bold and fiuiatical. The persona alluded 
' to as not tlurktjf to deny it, are Ushop Godwin and the truth-telling Fox ) the fsrmer takes no 

notice vrhatever of this compound miracle, wisely ju^lng it beneath contempt } and the latter 
< bestows on it the only correct appellation In our language, that of a iie. We sincerely pity the 

• man who could record such absurdiUes, which no real Christian can conscientiously endure, 
end no man of common sense believe. ** What lover of truth,** justly observes the QuartMijr 

• Keviewer, No. 0, •• can forbear to exclaim against the fetters imposed on intellect itself by a 
Soman Catholic education, which have completely disffaalified a man of vigorous understanding 

- ftbm distinguishing betvreen the testimony of an evangelist and that of a monk of the twelfth 
»«en«af3r !^' tee thi« story admirably told in •* A New Defence of the Holy Bowo Church;'* 
>y the author of" Horn 8oHtwMr»** the late irwthy A> aeric^ «q> 

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Bed bim to a sense of his duty. Pope Gregory had recommended 
the conversion of heathen temples into churches, but Cenowalch 
thought it more noble to raise a new and more splendid edi6ce ; and, as 
nsual with the monkish historians, they record his having prepared 
most comfortable cells for them and their helpmates. The building 
finished, says Milner, " our afmtle St. Birinus came to our city and de- 
dicated this famous sfcat of his successors in the name of the Holy Tri- 
nity, and of St. Peter and St. Paul, in the year of our Lord 548 * (648) .'" 
Winchester however did not immediately become the see ; Birinus re- 
turned to Dorchester, where he died, and was succeeded by Agilbert, a 
Frenchman, we are told, educated in Ireland. This bishop, although he 
has received the papal apotheosis, was not esteemed by Cenowalch, be- 
cause be could not speak Saxon f in a manner to be uteful as a teacher* 
His majesty, therefore, very properly resolved to find a remedy for thit 
defect, and divided the dibcess of Dorchester into two, allowing the weak 
Agitbert to remain in the original see, and had Wina, an English- 
inan of great talents, consecrated bishop of Winchester. Agilbert, 
with more of the haughtiness of political power, than the meekness of 
Christian benevolence, was greatly enraged at this reflection on his 
talents, and without regarding the interests of religion, insolently 
resigned his episcopal charge, and returned to France. For this vin- 
dictive pride and treason to the cause of religion, he has since beeo 
enrolled among the gods of modem Rome. By his democratic intrigues, 
however, he effected the resignation of Wina, who is called by Milner 
an " unworthy prelate," for no other reason than because he was an Eng- 
lishman, and perhaps evinced little disposition to yield obedience to any 
foreign power, to any thing but his God and his king. He was translated 
to the see of London, and that of Winchester remained vacant four years/ 
till Agilbert succeeded in fixing his nephew Eleutherius in that chair« 
This French bishop was succeeded by Hedda, an illiterate man, ac- 
cording to Bede, who substituted superstition for learning and piety, and 
tvho removed the corpse of Birinus { from Dorchester to Winchester, and 
ivith it his episcopal chair, about 6/6. This was the fifth bishop of Dor- 

* Thii date 548 occnn in the author's fint Tolurae, p. 95, and toI. H. p. 5, aKhoagfa it la evi- 
dently wrong, and should be 648. In vol. i. p. 99, Cenowalch, or Kenewalk, is represented af 
dying in 574. There are many other chronological errors and inconsbtencies in Milner*s his« 
tary, which the limits of this work do not admit of particakurising. In nearly the same pages 
it is stated in the first volume that Kinegils begun rebuilding the cathedral % in the tecond it 
is asserted that he died when he had only collected the materials for it. Cenowalch is alao 
supposed to have derived much architectural aid from.the fhmoos abbot, St. Bennet Biscop, his 
friend, who brought skilful masons, glaziers, and artificers ftora Italy and France. 

t Milner supposes, after Yerstegan, that the Saxons and French at that period sp<Ae dialects 
of the same language j but the editor of the Hampshire Repository has reftited this poMtion. 

t In the Hist, and Antiq. of Winchester, 9 vols. l9mo, attribated to the Rev. Mr. Watel, it 
ii stated that Hedda removed the body of Birinus to Winchester in 079, plCfiou to tlMSSt 
ieing removed thither, Ses Histoiy of liacola C«thtdral» p. (^. 


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4.1^.379.1' HAMPSHtKB. 

ipbester and Wiucbester and the fourth prelate belonging to these dees 
that has been deified* He was succeeded in 703 by the learned Daniel^ 
the historian of the South Saxons, dnd of the Isle of Wight. To him hat 
also been ascribed the memoirs of a wonder-working person called St^ 
Chad. During the prelate^hip of Daniel, the see of Chichester was 
taken from that of Winchester, to meet the spiritual exigencies of ex* 
tended Christianity and increased population. In 741 or 744 he re« 
Higned his charge, in consequence probably of old age. Uumfred wat 
bis successor ten years ; Kinebard was bishop twenty-six, and was fol- 
lowed by Athelard> who was translated to Canterbury^ About fM 
£gbald was consecrated bisbc^, but dying shortly after, Dudda, Ke* 
nebirtb, 'Almund, and Wigthen or Wighten, successively filled this 
see till 829. Hereftith or Herefrid was the next bishop ; he was slaia 
by the Danes when attending king Egbert at the battle of Cbannouth> 
about 833. Edmund, Helms tan> and king Ethel wolf were the sue* 
ceeding bishops> till the latter Ascended the regal throne, when the re* 
nowned St. Swithin ^ became the Occupant of this chair about 838. 
Ethelwolf, although & bishop, had children, and resigned the govern- 
inent of Kent, Essex, and Sussex to his illegitimate son Athelstan. Ne*' 
Verth^fes^ he is extolled by bishop Milner as '* the good king." He 
W^ %o fortunate on several occasions as to chastise the temerity of the 
Danes, and obliged them to direct their marauding expeditions to the 
coasts of Neustria, which they conquered, when the country was called 
Normandy, and the people Normans or North-men. From his demise 
till the invasion of the Normans, the see of Winchester was occupied 
by seventeen Saxon or English bishops subsequent to Swithin ; Adferth 
or Alfrith, a prelate of great learning, was translated to Canterbury | 
Dunbert, who died in 679, left lands to repair the cathedral, which 
was devastated by the Danes, and it is sui>posed he had the honour of 
crowning Alfred ; Denewulf, the reputed swine-herd f , in whose cot* 
tage in Athelney Alfred was concealed ; Athelm, who went to Rome ; 
Bertulf, of whom littte is known X ; St. Brithestane or Frithstanj 

« Swithin has beett aptly called the English god of rain, and he seemt to perfonn the same 
office at OfAJS^io g did among the Greelcs ; the Athenians however were much less Ubeial in this r«» 
•pect than the Roman Catholics, for although they adopted foreign deities, and raised altaft 
to them, yet their Worship was not permitted without a public decree, and coald not be intro- 
duced hy indifiduals (see Acu of Apost. xvii. 18). In the Roman Catholic church many haw» 
iieen introduced without such a legal ceremony. Swithin*s nocturnal pedestrian eatcursions hav^ 
been mptly tnmpared to those of Muma, who *' noctumse conciliebat omicki :** the latMr however 
%reie not stained with such foul hypocrisy. 

t This exaggerated tmdition is satisfactorily expUdned by Whhaker in his Life of St. Nee^ 
p, M4, where he shows that it was a dairy-house to which Alfred fled, accompanied by m choeen 
hand of his assistants. It is probable that the vulgar tale was derived from that of Baucis and 
JPhilemon, in the 8th book of the Metamorphoses, as the monks were more familar with Qvi4 
than Horace or Juvenal. . , . . 

t Here Milner involves the subject in questions respecting papal authority, overlooks Ihft 
existence of Ajthf la and Bertulf ^between m «ad 999)t |pr«toiUU th«t tikt ftc itm vi^aat «e^«pr 

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who resigned in 933, and consecrated St. Brinstan*, another pnpil of 
St. Griinbaid f ; St. Elfege the bald, uncle to the notorious St. Dun- 
Stan, was consecrated in 934 ; Elfin or £Uin, an ambitious prelate^ 
sought the pall of Canterbury, but was frozen to death in the Alpt 
oil his way to Rome to procure it ; Anthehn or Brithelm was sue- 
ceeded by St. Athelwald or Elhelwold J, like Swithin, he was a natift 
of Winchester, and rebuilt the cathedral, enriched it with subterra- 
neous crypts §, supplied it with water, made several canals, and improved 
the country ; dying in 984, Elfege the martyr was consecrated hf 
Dunstan, and translated to Canterbury in 1006 ; Kenulf or Elsius» 
became bishop two years, and was followed by Brithwoid || or Ethel- 

yean, till the holy Roman father becoming quite outrafeouc, threatened excommunication, 
when a grand synod was held, new sees erected, and bishops appointed. All this is a pretty 
llourith in behalf of the pope*t supremacy. 

* Brinstan, like Swithin, was fond of solitary walks, and often prayed in the churchyard 
One night, it is recorded, on finishing his devotions among the tomba, he cried out te^vtrscoal 
ia pace / when, U> ! a great multitude of souls anawering all toget^r with one load voice, ^acn- 
lated Jmen^ and awakened all the country round for miles with the sound. 

t Aa to thia Grimbald, notwithstanding the pondcrooa authority oif Df. M ilner, and the 
much more learned and ingenious researches of Whitaker, we must be pardoned for suspectwf 
Uiat he was not a frenchman, but an Italian singer, destined by Alfred to be precentor in Winu 
Chester cathedral. That he never was a professor at Oxford^ Whitaker in his St. hft has placed 
beyond a doubt. But the comprehensive mind of Alfred perceived that the civilisation of boors 
might be decelerated by music as well as the study of langnages^ and that it watf necesaanr C* 
have a good professor of *' sweet sounds," a coaiatorem optimum i Grimbald was encouraged tn 
settle in Winchester. 

t ** Hia episcopaV chair," Milner gravely states, ** long fvnMihied an object of popular aea^ 
TQ^on and awe j*» it being believed that those who sat in it, if negligent of tlieir duty, were 
INmisbed With tetriAc sights, &c. This contemptible superstition is recorded with as muck 
apparent approbation as the unnatural celibacy of the clergy, aiul the miracles of Punstan in 
supporting his celibacy Sy fire and sword. Hume, Rapin, &c. are censured for denouncing 
Dunvtan's insolence to king Edwy, and the monkish writers are marshaMed to prove that it was 
the king's mistress and not his queen that Dunstan had branded in the face with red hot inn$ 
and ham^rang j but if the mi^jor part of our historians have erred a littTe, Dr. Mihier errs still 
farther on the <M her side, in defending the conduct of a ferocious brute, who oould thua treat % 
woman, for what, at the very worst, in the language of his church, vras only a natural, and 
not a deadly, sin. £v«n-thik papal vicar-apostolic himself is obliged to acknowledge that tl»i 
.bishops and monks of that period were sunk in every possible kind of natural and unnatural 
vice, ,yet they were not btlmt and mutilated like the ill-fated female companion df tAe king. 
Vot does he anathematize popes Innocent VIU, and Alexander. VI. who more than five oentiir 
ries biter filled the churches and religious h«4ises with sixteen of their illegitimate children. 

i Crypts, Coa/esrionetor Martyriafwete the burial-place of martyrs. Milner sayt, " all tbaS 
remains visible of the work of Ethelwold are the crypts or chapels, the walls, pillars, and groinr- 
Ing of which remain in much the same stafe as that in which he left them, and are etecuted ia 
a firm and bold, though simple and unadorned manner, which gives no contemptible idea of 
^aaxon art.*^ The chief «lferaftrons'are a' new cry^ vrith poinded arches ttiade under the eaktem 
•extremity of the lady chapeV and nMsaes of masonry r^sed in various parts dther as- sepals 
•chres, or to support the iabric over them, which In these parts is defective. The entrance int« 
tliem in the Holy Hole (behind the chapel- in rear of the altar), was obstructed by b'lshop Fox, 
«nd another made from theWaterCloae mider the sonth»>east aisle of the builtfing, and near thf 
•0Duth-east wall of the transept. 

N It was probably during this bishop'f reign that the bart>aroufl murder of the Danes took 
place, to which king Etbelred was at least privy. The massacre began in Winchester, and then 
iiAsD were those indecent revels, called hdcktide ipvru, instituted by Etbelred In memoiy of the 
HMrt which the English women had borne in it. Those who were not ferodous enough to kiH 
itiMir inmates, contented themselves by koek$khming or hougkhg them, by cutting their kaa^ 
litfings, and disabling them tor war. In this operation the women were particularly acfiv^ 
nsi^ jcythes, reaping hooks, and every kind of edged instruments. Hence the Aodnidf amus«> 
««nc<n^, .4till pcacflsed In tome parts of the country the third Mondi^ lAer Easter, when women 
4k mep ^t iff their 4duii% fiBon vJaifb fJiey «ie oot ttbecatcd wtUMiU 

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A. D.. 1093^ HAMPSHIKV. 

«ro]d till 1015 ; theo Alsimus or Ekiaiis wore the mitre till 1099 or 
loss, wbeo the famous Alwyn * ascended the episcopal throne. He 
died in 1047> five years before queen £mma, when Stigand became 
bishop of Winchester ; and a few years afterwanls also got possession 
of Canterbury, from 'which he was deposed as being illegal, aboat 
1070, and died a prisoner in Winchester castle, llius miserably ter« 
aunated the life of the last Saxon bishop of this cathedral. 

We have now closed the reign of the Saxon church. The sees of 
England, after the Normans gained the ascendancy, were all filled by 
foreigners, chiefly Lombards, ProyeiKals, and Italians. The machinery f 
of popery then triumphed over the spirit of Christianity. Winchester 
fell into the hands of Walkelin, a chaplain and relation to the Norman 
William. It was in this city that many of the most grievous political 
measures were first projected or adopted, such as the curfew bell, 
and the general inquisition or estimate of all property for the purpose 
of taxation in the doomsday book or " roil of Winchester." Walke- 
lin, being exalted to the see of Winchester in 1070, was influenced 
by the same spirit of his countrymen in making every thing Norman } 
even the very language was to be that of Normandy. In 1079 he 
commenced rebuilding the cathedral, although it was not quite a cen* 
tury since Ethelwold had rebuilt and dedicated it to St. Swithin. A 
story is told of his obtaining permission from his cousin, the conqueror; 
to take as much timber for his building as he could cut and carry away 
In three days from the wood of Hanepinges, now Hempage. The 
lishop, with some Jesuitical zeal, availed himself of this grant, and 
assembled as many persons (in 1086) as swept away the whole wood 
in the time specified. In 1093 his church was finished, and dedicated 
to St. Swithin on the 15th July ; the next day, it is confusedly stated, 
workmen began to level the old cathedral, " leaving nothing standing 
>at the end of the year, except the high altar and one porch |." Thi$ 

* For a sappoied criminal intercoorte between this bishop and queen Emma* " the pearl 
•f Normandy," and mother of Edward the Confessor, the widowed queen is reported to have 
passed the fiery ordeal in this cathedral, walking barefooted over nine red-hot ploughsharei 
.^aced in a line, without experiencing the smallest injury, or eren knowing the precise moment 
when she was conducted over them by two bishops. This tale is not mentioned by any of the 
older writers, as Huntingdon, Malmesbury, &c. but by Higden, the pcdjrchronider, in tha 
jniddle of the fourteenth century, and is altogether unworthy of belief. These miraculous 
ploughshares were reported to be buried in the west cloister of the cathedral, and no doubt 
contributed to enrich the monks by the donations of the superstitious. 

t It was, says Hume, not till after the eighth century had commenced that any appeals 
were made to the pope } and even four years after the Norman conquest the foot of a popish 
legate had not polluted the soil of Britain. The conduct of such intriguers may be inferred 
from that of Grarina in Spain, in support of the Inquisition and against the laws, even in It IS. 

t To comprehend the actual works of Walkelin, observes the papal bishop, and reconcile 
•ontradictions, it is necessaiy to admit that Ethelwold's church " had the same limiu totha 
Wt that the church has had «ver since, but that it did not extend so far westward, probably 
jby 150 feet, as Walkelin afterwards built it. Consequently the ancient church, high altar, 
tower, tEMuept, and babitatioot of moakt were.more eaitcr^ thaa afterwanU fUwed.** This 


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^)trmeHESTSR CATflfiDRAL^ [a.1>. llOf. 

jb not Tery cotisisteDt with another tnditioh, namely, that only eight 
years after completing Walkelin's cathedral, and one after the 
death of Rufus, " a certain tower in the cathedral fell" and covered 
this king's tomh with its ruins. The people, strongly impressed with a 
tense of his vices, interpreted this disaster to indicate the wrath of 
heaven at his having received Christian burial. No heavy body falling 
from the present tower could strike this tomb, which is situated be* 
tween the choir and chancel. This Saxon structure, however, was 
evidently designed to serve as a lanthorn to the choir, and its eleva« 
tion contributed to render the place more solemn and impressive ; an 
vflfect which was greatly impaired by the introduction of screens and 
partitions.* The transept bears the same Saxon f features of the 
tower; the chief degradations it has experienced since Walkelin are 
confined to the windows, which have at different periods been subjected 
to the caprices of gothic fancy. In some the circular arch and billet- 
ed moulding remain, while a pointed window with gothic mullions 
ure inserted beneath them $ others have been made to undergo an 
almost total change, and the catherine-wheel window in the north 
front has been introduced since the original erection. From this 
period down to the sixteenth century every bishop and prior sought to 
earn an apotheosis by rebuilding or refounding (as it has been called) 
this church. After Walkelin> bishops Giff'ard (who built a palace in 

laay be true, but it doe« ti6t tLctbntit for the position of the fallen tower« unless it can be 
proved (which is not altogether improbable), that the west «nd of the present choir was part of 
the nare of £theIwold*s building. That tome Saxon artists sought security for their enmity t« 
VriUiam, by building the transept and tower, under the auspices of Walkelin, seems credibto 
•nough. Hie tower is a noble shaft, IX) feet high (Milner says 140), and one third its height 
Sn diameter. 

* A more striking instance of the absurdity and pernicious effects of these partitions could 
not be mentioned than the Grecian work of Inigo Jones, at the west entrance of the choir. T« 
•ay nothing of the preposterous association of columns and capitals, with the pointed, pyra- 
tnidal, funereal-like ornaments of Gothic structures, its existence in its present situation if 
altogether an unnatural excrescence, serving only to conceal the almost unrivalled stone screen 
fast of itl To aggravate the evil, the psunted glass te the windows over the dioir has been takea 
Hway and plain glass substituted, in consequence of which the glare of light is equally offensive 
and destructive of the scenic effect. The exquisite workmanship of some parts of the ancient 
itone screen makes one lament its incongruities and position. The funerary vases, generously 
^t not very tastefully placed in its niches (the ancient abode of the papal gods Amphiballus^ 
•within, and Others) by prebendary Harris at the beginnihg of last century, do not harmonise 
frith the other decoration*. Lastiy» West's picture of Christ nusing Lazarus has shut out tb« 
table of the Commandments and Lord's Prayer from the view of Christian worshippers, to give 
tolace to the representation of a doctor curing a patient, while a few ordinary persons look on. 
Let us hear the papal bishop Milner : ** Where has a Reynolds or a West been able to animal 
their stdnts, and particularly the Lord of Saints, with that supernatural cast of features, witk 
that ray qfPromethain Ught [a most heathen comparison fh>m the ruthless castigator of Hoadley] 
%rhicfa a Raphael and a Rubens have borrowed fh>m heaven itself wherewith to inspire them }** 
We answer with Lavater, that even the best are weak and unnatural crudities of men's fancies } 
ftnd as to ne Vinci's Eternal Word creating the Universe, it is an abortive effort of impiety t# 
|>tnonify Omnipotence, and has ehded only in producing a monster ! 

t In the foreign specimens of the architecture of the middle ages, we see no very dedsiv* 
symptom of the peculiar enrichments, the chevron mouldings, the eagles' sculls, basso relievoi^ 
fcc. which the Saxons so much affected in their highly ornamented arches and door-way«« 
These, It is not impossible, may have been imitatiQlit of the chMt« enrichmenti vhich bdoa^ 
Co the pare Dorlc.«-Qiwrtcrly toiew, No* U* 

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A. D. 1366} HAMPSHIRE. 

Southwark), Henry de Blois (brother of king Stephen), and R. de 
Toclyve, suffered the caiiiedral to i»ass unmutiluted. But the next 
prelate was Godiipcy de Lucy, who, according to the Winchester 
annals, be^^m and completed the tower. Rudborne asserts, what is 
favoured by internal evidence, that it was finished during the life of 
Walkelin. To reconcile these contradictions, Dr. Milner alleges that 
there must have been two towers, and that the Saxon work east of the 
high altar with a small tower over it (perhaps on the site of the present 
chancel) being decayed, were repaired by Lucy in 1200. After this the 
bishop agreed in 1202, with a confraternity of workmen, probably free- 
masons*, to rebuild the whole east end of the church with the lady 
chapel, as far as it originally extended, in five years. He died however 
a year before it was finished, and was buried in the centre of the works 
he bad projected. Still the business of remodulating was continued ; 
the progress of the i)ointed architecture was equally rapid and general j 
pointed and lancet arches with cuspidated shoulders, spreading co- 
lumns, flowered tracery vaulting, shelving and ornamented buttresses^ 
turrets and pyramidal pinnacles, decorated with torches or crockets, 
canopied nitches, statuary friezes and corbels, ramified mullions, his- 
torical windows, and tabernacled door- ways, became parts of everf 
high finished building. Winchester must necessarily be in the fashion 
of other cathedrals, and bishop William de Edingdon, treasurer and 
chancellor to Edward HI. actually commenced (in 1366) rebuilding 
the nave, though he lived to finish only the first two windows f with 
their corresponding buttresses and a pinnacle on the north side, and 
the first window with a buttress and pinnacle on the south side, at the 
west end of the cathedral. His more fortunate successor, William of 
Wykeham, completed what he had began. This memorable patron of 
learning employed Wm. Winford as architect, S. Membury as surveyor, 
^nd the monk J. Wayte as controller of the works. This architect, it 

* The question respecting Freemasons being the original architects of our cathedraU, hat 
been revived and adopted by sir James Hall, in his splendid Essay on Gothic Architecture, 
published in 1813. The opinion is plausible, and it accounts for the uniformity of manner, and 
the changes in that manner rather by centuries and epochs than countries. The other parts of 
this ingenious author's theories, ascribing the origin of the pointed arch to wicker-work, and 
defining the compartments in windows, groining, and traceiy in cielings, &c. by the ramifica- 
tions and branches of trees, may amuse the fancy with curious and even exact analogies, but 
they add little to our stock of knowledge, and do not inform or satisfy the judgment. 

t In opposition to this statement, which is adopted by Milner, Mr. Brayley, with his usual 
•cuteness and accuracy, in his account of Hampshire (Beauties of England, vol. vi.)» considen 
the windows as distinctly marked to be the work of Edingdon, because the trefoils in every 
compartment, both inside and outside, instead of being cusped are cordated or heart-shape<j^ 
and accompanied with certain foliated carvings, which have been imitated by bishop Fox at the 
tast end of the church. The same ornament appears in the church of Edington, Wilts, which 
was built by this bishop in the place from which he derived his name. This is a corroborative 
circumstance, which seems fully to justify Mr. Brayley's conclusion, " that the whole, or nearljr 
the whole of the west front, must be Considered as the work of Edyngton ; and though Aot so 
bemntifolly proportioned as some other pft(U of the cathednl| is yet executed in a style highly 
«nditable to tiU UsU andiudgaMiit.*' 


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«|>pears, made his pinnacles ligliter, his windows loftier and narrowefi 
having onl^.lhree raulHons instead of four, and in other respects pursued 
his own taste in completing the nave, without much regard to matbe- 
natical uniformity. His work, however, was not entirely a new 
erection, but a remodelling^; as the original Saxon pillars maybe 
traced, observes Milner, ** not only at the steps leading to the choir, 
where there was a sufficient reason for not casing them^ but aloft^ 
amidst the very timbers of the roof on both sides of the nave, through 
the greater part of its extent, corresponding to those in the transept. 
The pointed arches also between the columns of the first story have been 
formed within the circular ones of the Saxon second story. These 
facts offer an explanation of the excessive massiveness of the columns^ 
it being necessary to case the Saxon pillars with Crothic clusters.*' 
The west front, nave, and choir being now finished chiefly in the 
pointed style of architecture, the eastern part, from the tower to the 
low aisles, said to be built by de Lucy, still retained their original Saxon 
features f ; these it was deemed necessary to remove, and it is con- 
jectured that if bishop Fox had lived longer (he died in 1528), he 
would have operated in like manner on the tower and transept.^ Per- 
haps the circumstance is not to be regretted 3 and however defective the 
cathedral may be in point of uniformity, it excels in variety, while it 
exhibits a characteristic trait of exterior ornament with a good genuine 
<>ld English heart. In addition to the lady chapel finished by Fox at 
the east end of the cathedral, prior Silkestede about the same time 
annexed to its eastern extremity a chapel or sanctuary, and altar about 
fifty-six feet in length, and containing three spacfous windows crowded 
with ornaments, and other parts besmeared with devices of the foonden 
Did our limits permit, we should here describe someof the interesting 
monuments which abound in this cathedral. On entering the nave, the 
chantry of Wykeham { appears under the fifth arch of the south aisle. 

« Prior Thomat of St. Swittun's says, that Wykchain " a Aindamentis nparatit ac etiam 
rmovarU" ecclesiam. Lotrth, App. Life of Wylceham. Chaundler is more definite ) ** corpiu 
diets ecclesiae cum duabus alis & omnibus fenestris vitreis, a magna occidental! fenestra capi- 
tali usc^ue campanile a funde usque ad summum de novo reparami, & Toltas in eisdem, opere 
curioso, constituit." Angl. Sacr. t. ti. In addition to this historical evidence, there is also 
<demQnstr%tive proof that the style of architecture only vras altered by Winford, as some recent 
alterations in the Slype or passage on the south side of the cathedral, occasioned the removal of 
part of a ^-all or buttress a<]|joining the west door, and leading to the Close, when the Saxoa 
ornaments, billet, and circular mouldings were exposed to view, and are still to be seen. 

t At the east end of the cathedral there are some indications of its having originally been 
circular, a circumstance not noticed either by Milner or Brayley. It is probable that the eastern 
termination of the Saxon church was semicircular, although not particularly specified by the 
chroniclers. 1 1 would appear that such forms are of great antiquity, all men prefering circular t« 
angular figures ; and even in the South Sea islands, among the savage Otaheiteans, we find the 
bouses of the chiefs have an oval figure. S^ TurnbuU's Voyage round the World, 4to. I81S. 

% ** The marble figure of this great man,'* observes Milner, " is dressed in the complete 
, (popish) episcopal costume of mitre, crosier, gloves, ring, cope, tuni(^ dalmatic, alb, sandals* 
&c. which of late have been property gilt and coroured.*' 

(mj ' -. ^ - 

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kl J>: 1600.] HAMPSRIftS. 

Kearly opposite to it is the Tery carious old font* hi the liortii alsle^ 
nHiich has occasioned much controversy, and nourished more supersti- 
tion. Advancing towards the choir we previously come to the steps under 
tiie ancient rood-loft f, with the tomb and chantry of bishop Eding* 

* The font in this cathedral has attracted reiy nnntiial attention, and poxxled antiquaries 
extremely. Dr. Milncr supposes be has at length solved the conundram, and explained the 
IMeroglyphical figures on iu sides, by meant of the Golden Legends of saints and the Sanim- 
Breviaiy. Two sides, the north and east, of this font, are very similar to that in Lincoln. It 
ia covered on the top and four sides with rude carving ; the ornaments on the top and two sides 
consist of Saxon zigzag, pellets, &c. with doves, emblematic of the Holy Obost (similar to what* 
are seen on ancient Christian monuments in the catacombs at Rome), which appear breathing 
iuto phials supposed to containHhe two kinds of sacred chrism used in baptism. The dove ia' 
represented in various attitudes, with a salamander, emblematic of fire, in allusion to the bap«. 
tism in Mat. iii. 3. The other two sides are more curious, and have been generally supposed to 
represent the history of Birinus, and his voyage to Englwid. Under this impression the anti* 
4|uity of this font was carried back to the seventh century. Dr. Milner now offers another and 
■oore plausible coi^ecture. Baptism by immersion, he believe, was in use till the tenth cen- 
^ry, and was performed in a bath, called a baptistery, being a building distinct from thechuidif 
and consequently this fbnt, which is calculated only for aspersion, cannot be of an older date ; 
mitees were not used as episcopal ornaments before the tenth century, although something 
approaching their figure, or that of a rude crown, appears on the head of the priest, with his , 
crosier, in this piece of sculpture. The most distinct human figures on this font, are the efllgy ' 
of « bishop, four other persons, a child, and a Saxon church on the south side ; two of the per« • 
ions have joined hands, another holds a bird, t^e fourth has extended arms covered with a robe» 
»n4 the child is sitting. On the west side are t#^eflSgies of a bishop, a crescent-like boat witk 
three persons, a child lying fiat, two recumbent, one erect, three recumbent heads, and a maa, 
standing with an instrument like the helm of a boat, raised up In the manner of an ax for 
•triking. These characters are supposed by Milner to represent the miracles of St. Ntclurias* 
bishop of Myra, in Lyria, the patron of children, and the hymen of the papal theogony, who8«. 
pilars remained entire in France during all the horrors of the revolution. The Ant act of Nicho* 
Us, in which by the way there is nothing miraculous, was his giving money to a nobleman in 
laistress, who was tempted to make a traflSc of his daughters. Nicholas was rich, and being 
pleased with the damsels, left them purses of gold eveiy night in their bedchamber, with which 
l!hey obtained husbands. This incident, bishop M. thinks, is commemorated on the south . 
aide of the font, where the father is represented as thanking Nicholas, his daughten having got 
married, and the church appearing in the distance. The next is Nicholas's voyage to the Holy 
Land, when he was threatened with shipwreck ; but being more wise and power^l than St. Paul, 
Ite appeased the storm, and avoided the i^postle*s fate. At Alexandria he cured the sick ) but hit 
/chief glory, after procuring husbands to the three fair sisters, was that of saving the lives of 
fiiree' young men condemned to death in Myra, by his speedy arrival just at the moment the 
executioner had raised the ax to chop off their heads. The last incident supposed to be hert 
inepresented, is that of a miracle performed by Nicholas long after his death. A childless noble- 
man prayed to St. Nicholas for a son } this good generative god, as his votaries well know, ia 
not deaf, and he gave the man his prayer, for which he was to receive a gold cup in return. The. 
cup was made, but as the son was living, and the vow forgotten, he thought to give Nicholas an 
Inferior one. Another cup was made, and the nobleman set out on his voyage to Myra, with 
bis son and the second cup, to present it to Nicholas ; but the boy and Ant cup both fell over 
the vessel into the sea, and the dgected father proceeded to Myra, where he repented and* 
prayed, when to his greatjoy and astonishment his son with the cup came walking into the. 
church 1 Hence the reason of the child lying at the end of the boat. Such are the eastern romancef 
which are enlisted to explain the sepulture of this celebrated font. Put of these scenes wouldi 
apply equally well to St. Clement, who was drowned in the sea with an anchor tied to his necks 
and which turned into a magnificent church and altar under the water. At the place also where, 
this holy man expired, the sea becomes dry seven davs every year, and allows the people to 
walk in to wonhip at his altar, which is at other times covered many fathoms with water. Aa 
to the age of the font, Mr. 8. Carte thinks it uncertain, the monks not being interested in bap* 
tism, but in burying. (Archaeol. x.)— Rev Mr. Denne (Id. xi.) supposes that Lincoln and Win^ 
Chester had parochial alUra or chapels, which accounU for their having fonts ; and as the 
inonks derived advantage from the baptismal chrism, the parochial clergy were eivioined ta 
supply it annually and pay the fee } but many of them were economical, and made it serve twa 
or three yean, although the remnant at the end of every year was ordered to be burned. 

t Its use is thus described by Milner. '* At the top of the steps leading to the choir 
is t^ sl>ot which w»s formerly covered by the pulpitum. This answen to the ambo in the 
iesll^ of the prin^itive church, and was i^sed for reading or chaunting the Wessons of th^ 
fMA 6ffice, «i likcWiae tot ooamaio^ the organ and tl^e nOnttreUey hi ^mci«l| whteh acoooK 

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^on on the toutli aiale. The entrance to tbc choir M ob«trticted by a 
JBodern partition, justly reprehemied by every spectator. The choir and 
chancel having crypts under them are elevated some steps above the 
flooring of the nave and aisles. The cieling of the tower, which forms 
part of the choir, is the work of Charles I. in 1634 ; that of the 
chancel or presbytery is attributed to bishop Fox. The stalls in tha 
choir are conjectiu-ed to be older than the nave, and are ornamented 
with finely-carved work, as misereries *, canopies, &c. The pulpit is 
executed in cane- work, and bears the name of prior Silkestede ; oppo- 
site to it is a Corinthian episcopal throne. Behind the altar is the 
stone screen already noticed : under the three arches on each side 
of the chancel are six mortuary chests, containing the bones of 
the Saxon kings, Kinigiis, Adulphus, Kenulph, I^bert, and Ed- 
nund. In rear of this altar- screen is an apartment, also enclosed 
with a screen on its east side, called a capitular chapel. This was the 
site of the magnificent shrine of Swithin, composed of gold, silver, 
and precious stones, and has been denominated by modem writen 
the Sanctum Sanctorum f. On the south side of this chapel is Fox's 
chantry -, and opposite to it is the last mausoleum of the papal bishops ; 

jmnied the choir belonr. From the circumstance of t\xt lessons being here read, it is in some 
countries called the Jube (in consequence of beginning with the words Jafte, Domine, &c.) ; and 
because a great crucifix was always placed in the front of it towards the people, it has als^ 
obtained the name of the Rood. Loft. The rood or crucifix, with the attendant figures of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John tlie Evangelist, which formerly stoqd here, were very precious, 
as well for their antiquity as their value j being the legacy of Stigand, and composed of the 
precious metals. Beneath the crucifix, on the parapet of this loft and the spandrils of the 
arches supporting it, the histories of the Old and New Testaments were curiously carved, and 
beautified with colours. These being placed directly before the body of the people assembled 
in tlie church, formed a series of vutmctwe leggons, which were legible to the most illiterate.'* 
With respect to the instructive powers of these legible lessons, the writer of this can speak 
from personal experience. In the cathedral of Valencia, in Spain, is a highly-finished Foodr 
loft,, where arc some carvings of designs taken from the Bible history j but so very instructive 
are they, that few even of the officiating clergj-men can tell to what they refer. It is ludi- 
crously absurd to suppose that illiterate persons who cannot read, or if they could arc not 
sdlowed to read, the Bible, can comprehend the import of sensible figures imagined from Divine 
Revelation. It should seem, however, as if papists themselves were conscious of their inutili^, . 
if not of their danger, as such sculptures are now rarely foupd in papal churches. 

• •* That small shelving-stool,»» says Milner, *♦ which the seats of the stalls formed whea 
turned up in their proper postition, is called a Miserere. On these the monks and canons of 
ancient times, with the assistance of their elbows on the upper part of their stalls, half sup- 
ported themselves during certain parts of their long offices, not to be obliged always to stand or 
kneel. This stool, however, was so contrived, that, if the body became supine by sleep, it 
naturally fell down, and the person who rested upon it was thrown forward into the middle of 
the choir. The present usage in this country is to keep ihem always turned down, in which 
]kMition they form a horizontal seat, an indulgence that was very rarely granted to those who 
kept choir in ancient times.** Me must have very little knowledge of the human mind, and still 
less of the true nature of Christian worship, who can suppose any man capable of praying in 
■pirit and in truth, while he is thus suffering bodily uneasiness from a narrow seat, or any other 
human device, to distract his attention. Had bishop Milner ever once attempted to raise up 
his mind towards Infinite Power and Goodness, he must have found his total inability under 
anch -circumstances. He may, indeed, have commanded his tongue and lips, but not his mind 
and heart one entire minute in an irksome situation. 

t This term seems to have electrified the historian of Winchester, inflamed his superstition^ 
and ended by an explosion in Greek, with which he is little acquainted. ** He is not at hom^ 
•n classic ground*** Quart. Rev. No. 0. See his misinterpretaUon of bishop ^drevrs' ep ^a|p)^ 

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A. b. 1680.] RAMPSHf RE, 

(that of the roasting Gardiner, whose bones ^' are handled and thrown 
Hbout every day in the year/* as a standing roeniorial of the fate of 
the wicked even in this world ^. To the east of the capitular chapel it 
ide Lucy*s tomh. It appears probable that the similarity of the name 
liucy to Lucius gave rise to the notion that it was also the sepuU 
jdire of the latter. In the western end of this part are the Holy Hole, 
and the tomb formerly supposed to be Swithin's, but now deemed ta 
he that of Silkestede ; east; of these are the chantries of cardinal Beaufort 
and bishop Waynflete ; and still farther east is the lady chapel with 
its stalls and paintings j* ; on the south-west side of it is Langton't 
chantry and on the north-west the Guardian Angel chapel. In the 
north aisle and north end of the transept there is little to arrest atten< 
tion. In the south end of the transept were two chapels, with the cale« 
factory and dormitory of the monks, adjoining the eastern cloister. 

We have now passed the era of the glorious reformation, when 
die building or repairing of churches, the erection of magnificent 
chantries and luxurious mausoleums, the endowments of altars, the 
burning of lamps, the multiplicatipQ pf images, and the accumula- 
tion of legacies for perpetual masses and prayers for the dead, have- 
peased to be the saviours of souls, the ladders by which the most 
wealthy and most wicked soonest attained the highest heaven. From 
the downfal of the Saxon church, the prototype of the present esta- 
blishment, may be dated the ascendancy of popery in this country, and 
from that period till the reformation the idols of Moloch usurped the 
altar of the living God. The restoration of apostolic faith " overthrew 
the idols, removed the high places, and destroyed the graven images.'* 
This however was not effected without violent resistance ; and the bloody 
reign of Mary and her mitred executioner, Gardiner, evinced at once 
the extremes of virtue and vice in our country. We might then see, as 
a Spanish historian has well observed, -' talents overcome, torrents of 
blood shed in the most barbarous and cruel manner, virtue persecuted 
and sacrificed, and injustice triumphant {.'^ Ijappily the moral picture 
since the re-ests^blisbment of trqe religion amply consoles us for the 
horrors accumulated on the innocent and beneficent reformers. Yet, 
however great may be the force of truth on some occasions, it has not 
been able to shield the Protestant bjshops of Winchester from the 

* We admire the natural wish of bishop Mihier, who ktrokes the sepvltore of 6adiner*t 
bones in the words of Horace for Archytas. But while we respect the voice of humanity let ua 
not abuse jnttice ; we must not forget by whose means Ridley, Latimer, &c. wanted aaepulcbre} 
hy whose contrivance ** Thefr ashes flew,-4^o marble tells us whither." 

t This place seems to be similar to the Qta-fxofo^ut, or worship of Cetes, the nonrisber o^ 
mmiai»t among tlie Greelcs. See Marielatria or Mary-worship condemned, Luke xi. 97, «8. 

t '* Los talentos malogrados, los lasos de la sangre rotos del modo mas barbaro y mat vil^ 
In virtod pe iacgn sd a y sacriflcada, la iiyusti<aa trinnfimtc.** ^^uatana'a Lives, 

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ferocious libels of Miloer, nearly all of wbom (al>out twenty-one from 
the reformation to the present clay)> have been traduced in some- 
respect or other by this papal bishop and politician. It was, indeed, 
natural that the dissolution of Swith1n*s priory should excite his ire ; ^ 
but Kingesraell, the forty-first and last prior (since its origin in 970), 
shares his abuse for becoming the first Protestant dean of the cathedral^ 
in 1539. Since d)at period its liishops and deans have been distinguished 
at least for their talents and learning, however superstitious bigots may 
vainly seek to decry their superior virtues and Christian piety. It is, 
however, thedoty of historians to be impartial ; and had we discovered 
In Protestants those gross deviations from rectitude, or even weakness,' 
which so repeatedly occur in the lives of monks, cardinals, and |K>pes, 
they should not have passed unnoticed. We wish not to speak evil of 
dignities, still less to ascribe turpitude where it is possible to be inno-^ 
oent. We regret the necessity of using in the nineteenth century the 
tame language as our enlightened reformers did in the sixteenth ; but 
idolatry is still predominant, and too many self-called Protestants begin* 
to think it harmless. We should rejoice if the facts stated in this brief 
aketcb tend to disabuse even one individual of ^his fatal error. 


Extremff! Inifth from west to east 554 feet j breadth from north to sooth SOB. NAVE 351' 
feet long, 86 broad, iucludinv the aisleii, and 79 high. CHOIR 138 fen long, 40 broad, and tiie 
same heikht as the nave. CH ANCRL ^ feet long. TRANSEPT fiOB foetionff. The Lady Chapel 
is 56 feet long ; the Cloisters were 179 lu length aad the same in breadth. 


PUU§ 1, EzhibiU the gr^t West Doorway, through which appear thu colmnns and groining of. 
the nave, the eastern window of the choir, and the stone screen at the back of the altar. The 
Grecian partition which sepai^tes the nave fnoni the choir is omitted. 

Plate 8. West Front and great West Window, which contains some richly-stuned glass, with, 
the doors into the nave and aisles, and the open gallery over them, said to be originally 
designed for the convenience of the bishop in his pontificals, when attended by his clergy, to. 
give his blessing on certain occasions to the people assembled in front, or to absolve them 
from any censure which they had incurred. The beauty of the fine towers on each side of thef 
window is greatly impaired by the clumsy square buttresses. 

PUiteS. A North-west View, shewing the north transept and part of the nave; there is aa 
eptfiance to the transept under a low arch j the shafts of the columns supporting it are nearly 
covered with earth ; immediately within is an apartment separated from the rest of the tran- 
sept, and used as a workshop by masons and others. ^ 

Platr 4. A distant Prospect of the cathedrt^l, including the picturesque ruins of Wolvesey castle^ 

** which form the foreground. The origin of this memorable palace, is ascribed to Kinigils and 

, Ceiiowalch, and said to have been reptdred and enlarged by bishop Henry de Blois in 1138. 
King Edgar imposed it as a tribute on Ludwall, a Welsh prince, to find him 300 wolves* heads 
every year, and deposit them with the bishop, at his palace in Winchester, which hencef 

^ deriv^ the name of Wolve$ey, After paying this tribute three years, he was unable to procuro 
any more wolves* heads, either by httnting in his own territories, or by purchase in any other 
part of the island. Thus were these animals extirpated, and our woollen staple protected. 

PbUt 5, Represents the north>east of the building with the Lady Chapel and sanctuaiy, contain* 

; ing the north wiiidows of the Guardian Angel chapel, &c. 

Piatt 6. A south view taken from the dean*s garden ; part of the deanery library appears in front. 

Plate 7f Pourtrays the south side of the nave and west side of the south transept, with the *lj/p» 
or arched passage leading tram the cloisters to the east of the building. 

Plate^f, Shews the Interior of the north transept ; in the upper story are seen the Saxon arched 

, passages ortrifaria in the wall. This transept is now in so ruinous and degraded a state that 
the public have lately been denieil access to it. . Eormerly ^^ walU w^re 4ecora^ w|tl^ paint* 
ings, and it still reuins traces of its primitive magnificence^ 

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*•* The italic letters indicate the pages marked at the bettom of the Uft eidef 
thus, (a) (b) ^c. and the Utter S^for note. 

KinigiU, fkbiiloos histoiy of, «. 
Lucius, the Arat Christian king, a} protebl* 
tmdition, a; erroncoualy Mid to found 

Afylam, right of, falsely attributed, 6 N.j 
«rh«n instituted, ib.— Architects, British, in 
the third century, e N. — ' Amphibailus, a 
cloak, metamorphosed into a papal saint, the 
cathedral dedicated to it, H^ worshipped, ib. 
N.— Agilbert, a French inuiguer,/; could not 
speak Saxon, /.—Arches, pointed, progress of, 
I. — ^Ambo, what, n N. 

British metropolitan sees, c« — Buildings, 
Saxon and Norman, differ only in dimensions, 
e N.— Britons furnished the first Christian 
king and Christian emperor, a proof of their 
superior intellects, d N.—- Birinus, his adven- 
tures, e; his miracles exposed by the Quarterly 
Heviewer, ib. N. > dedicated Winchester ca- 
thedral,/; his corpse removed to Winchester, 
ib.— Brinstan, loudosounding miracle wrought 
1^, AN.— Bnyley, Mr. describes Edingdon's 
building, contrary to Milner, I N. — ^Baptisro, 
by immersion, used till the tenth century, n 
K.— Bishops, list of, r. 

Church, Christian, in Winchester since 180, 
a; fabulous extent of, ib.— Christianity early 
established in Britain, aj not dangerous to the. 
Roman government, 6.— -Caractacus, who, a. — 
Carte prejudicedly denies the early propagation 
of Christianity in Britain, a N.— Consecration 
of Winchester gave no authority to the pope, 
f .— Cenowalch, apostatizes, e. — Chichester, 
see of, taken from that of Winchester, g>.— 
Crypts, described, h N.— Circular, a form of 
building adopted, even by savages, in early 
ages, m N. — Chrism, baptismal, advantageous 
to the monks, n N. — Chair, Grymbald's, su- 
perstitious notion of, h N.— Chancel, or pres- 
bytery, deling of, o.-^orporal, what, eN. 

Denewolf, the swine-heard, tradition of, ex- 
plained, g N.— Dunstan's cruelty defended by 
Milner, h N. ; his conduct unpardonable, ib. 
'—Dimensions of the cathedral, 9.— Deans, 
list of, r. 

Education, Roman catholic, destroys the 
intellect, e N.— Ethelwolf, bishop and king, 
bad children, yet praised by Milner, g.—-Em' 
ma, queen, tale of her passing the fiery ordeal, 
for a criminal intercourse with bishop Al- 
wyn, i N. 

Font described, n; in parochial churches, 
ib. N.— Figures, carved, of no use for instruc- 
tion to the illiterate, o N. 

Gibbon's motives for denying Christianity 
in Britain, a N. ; admits the savageness of 
Maximian, dN. — Grimbald, only an Italian 
singer at Winchester, AN.— Gardiner's bones, 
still uncovered, a standing judgment, p. — Gal- 
lery, west front, designed for the bishop to give 
benedictions, 9. 

Haggit, answer to Milner on Goth, arch, c 
K. — Hierachy, first Christians retained that of 
the pagan Flamines, c— Hedda, an ignorant 
prelate, /.— Hock^tide sports, what, h N.-* 
Hall, sir J. adopts the notion of freemasons 
being the architects of Europe, I N.j his 
wicker work addressed to the fancy, ftnd not 
the judgment, ib. 

Jutes, origin and character of, d N.^-Jube, 
w)iat, o N.— Idolatry still prevailing, must be 
censured, as it was at the reformation, 9. 

JFrrsla.— P. g , note *, line 7, for " conciliebat mmicuB,** read *<condItftbat amira."— p. «, note ♦, 
llth line from bottom, for ''sepulture** read ** sculpture.*'— p. p, note *, 1st line, for **QeM» 
V»cf 1^ read ** Of«diiier'i."-p. 9, Uit Une but two, for <* trifiRria** read ** triforia.*' 

churches, 6; his life doubtfUl, tf V.— Legate^ 
their conduct, i N. 

Monasteries, falsely said to be erected, ft.— 
Martyrs, papal, anonymous and iowginaiy, 4 
N.— Miserere, what, oN.— Milner, irejects th« 
tale of monks, in the second cent, h j a papal 
bp. acknowledges &bulous saints, d N. ; traces 
the origin of the South Saxons, e N. } relates 
the tale of Birinus, ib. , erroneouf ly suppoeet 
the Saxons and French used the same Ian* 
guage,/N.; his numerous chnmological er- 
rors, ib. ; endeavours to support papal supre* 
macy, kV. { his heathenish prusesof pictures^ 
kH.i describes the supposed history of tbe 
font, n N. ) ignorant of the true nature of 
worship, and of Greek, oN.; libels thepro« 
testant prelates, 9. —Mitres^ when intro- 
duced, «N. 

Nicholas, bp. of Myra, the papal hymai* 
bis marvellous story said to be represented <m 
the font, u N. } part applicable to Clement, 
ib. — Normans, origin of, g. 

Opus Romanum, Saxon building, c. 

Pownal on Roman and British architecture, 
c N, — Ploughshares deposited in the west 
cloister, d N.— Pope, appeals to, when com* 
menced, i N.—^ctures of infinity, all abortive 
efforts of impiety, k N. ; those of Christ rais- 
ing Lazarus improperly substituted for the 
credence Uble, ib.— Pulpitum, what, «N.— 
Popery, rose on the ruins of the Saxon church, 
p ; its atrocities under bloody Mary, ib. ; 
again assumes distinction among protest- 
ants, 9. — Plates, description of, 9.— Priors, 
list of, r. 

Quinthelin, king, converted, «. 

Rudborne, a monk and fabulous historian, 
b. N.— Review, Quarterly, No. 6, on ancient 
temples, cN.; No. 11, on Saxon ornaments, 
* N.— Rood-loft, described, a N.; in Valen- 
cia, ib. — Reformation overthrew the idols, p. 

Sanctuary, privilege of instituted, b N.; 
Scots, builders with wood, c N.— Serle*s New 
Defence, &c. e N.— Swithin, the god of rain, 
compared to the Grecian one, g^ N. j his pri- 
vate nocturnal amours, ib. — Screen, absurd 
grecian one, k N.— Saxon archit. omamts. not 
seen on the continent, iir N. } Saxon work stiU 
existing in this cathedral, m.— Sanctum Sane- 
torum, what, o. 

Tower, fall of, incompatible with the Nor- 
man statements, k. 

Vases, funerary, ill placed in the andent 
stone screen, k N. 

Winchester, origin of the name, a j place 
where the Norman issued his most grievous 
measures, t. — ^Walkelin, reputed builder of the 
cathedral, i j swindled the king, ib.— Wyke- 
ham*s chantry, mj his costume, ib. N.— 
Worship, impracticable, when sitting uneasy, 
o N. { of Mary condemned, p N. j of foreign 
deities not permitted by the Greeks without 
an express decree, g N.— Wolves destroyed, 9. 
-^Wolvesey castle, plate 4 » origin of its 

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EUine or Eadsine 












Walkelin or Wal 







Vacant Ten Years, \ 



William Giffard 



790 Blois Blesensis 1 129 


Vacant Three Years, 


Richard Toclivius, 



Tocliffe or More 



God. de Lucy 


IJerefrid 839-34 

Sir P. de Rupibus* 



Vaeant Five Years. \ 



WilUam de Raley 




Vacant 1249-60 I 

Adferth of Athelred 863 





John of Exeter, Ox 



on or Gervase X 




Nicholas Eliensis 




John de Pontys 




Henry Woodlock 




John Sandall 


Elphegus Calvui 


Regin. Asser 



John Stratford $ 




A. deOrltonorTarl 






Eipbegus or Elfege 


WilUam Edingdon 


Dinotus or Devotus in 

Walter I. 


the Second Century. 





Robert III. 








Walter II. died in 







Walter HI. 




J.deCaletoorChauz 1247 1 



William de Tanlon 


GeoflFry I 


Andrew 11. 


Geoffry II. 


Ralph Russel 








John de DareTille 


Geoffry III. 


Adani'de Farnham 





Robert I. 




Robert 11. 


Henry Wodelock 


William Kingsmell, 
last prior of St. 
Switbin's and first 
dean 1540 

Sir John Mason 1549 
Edmund Steward 15.S3 
John Warner 1559 

Francis Newton 1565 
John Watson 1570 

Law. Humphrey 
Martin Heton 
George Abbot 
Thomas Moreton 
John Youn«r 
Alexander Hyde 
William Clark 
Richard Meggot 
John Wickart 


William Wykeham 1S6T 
H. Beaufort, (card.) 1404 
William Waynfleet 1447 
Peter Courtney l48a 
Thomas Liangion 1493 
Richard Fox 1500 

T. WoUey, (card.) 1529 
Stephen Gardiner 1531 
John Poynet 1550 

John White 1556 

Robert Home 1560 

John Watson 1580 

Thomas Cowper 1583 
William Wickham 1595 
William Day 1595 

Thomas Bilson 1597 

James Montague 1616 
Lane. Andrews 1618 

Richard Neiie 1627 

Walt. Curie 1632 

Vacant Ten Years. 
Brian Duppa 1660 

George Morley 1662 

P. Mews 1684 

Sir J. Trelawney, bt. 1707 
Charles Trimneil 1721 
Richard Willis 1723 

Benjamin Hoadley 1734 
John Thomas 1761 

Hon. Br. North 178I 

Nic. de Tavente 
Richard de Enford 
Alexander Heriard 
John de Merlow 
W. de Thudden 
Hugh de Basyng 


Robert de Rudbone 1384 
Thomas Nevylo 1394 
Thomas Shyrborne 
William Aulton 
R. Marlborough 
Robert Westgate 
Thomas Hunton 
Thomas Silkestede 
Henry Brock 
W. Kingsmell 

(Resigned in 1539) 

William Trimneil 
Charles Naylor 
Zachariah Pearce 
Thomas Cheyney 
Jona. Shipley 
Newton Ogle 
Robt. -Holmes 
Tuos. Rbnnbl 



* He wiched to bribe the guards of the castle in Devizes to murder their prisoner, Hubert 
de Burgh} chief justiciary, &c. to John and Hen. HI. t Henry III.*s half-brother, but never 
consecrated. t At his death Richard More was elected, bvt set aside by the archbUho|i« 

% Translated to Canterbury. 


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, \^ 




^ ^ 





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aoitkid -'V'iiAj h, .. 

.'. J .'.•mj fiArmjjta-ltrw . 

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Shaving the ^roinui^ of the Hoof. 


t -Great West Door. 

'^-GulLay for Minstrds 

i-Tomb i& Chantry of W^of Wykeham 

S-Jjident Font 

S-i^BdMn^toTLf Tonib & Oumiry 

1 -Grecian SarterL 

6~Rntnaux>to Choir. 

d^fiUars of m^ Gnat Tower. 

JO^ChapA now used as a. Workshop . 

R-Zndosed Chapels. 


ii-McCent Coiftrv. ^ 


^-Enirance to ^u Sfype^^^.. _, 

16 ^Staircase to iSve Dormitory. 
n^Loor of S. ~ 

19 _ Silkr^sted^^^ Chapel 

W^Venerahle U''. 

V — Steps to the Choir aisles. 

2Z-Tomb of PT'Jtu/us. 

23— Steps to the ChancU 

li—Mortuxiry Chests 

2i_ Ccmmunix}Ti Table _ _ 

2G^ Capitular Chapel 

%7—Chardnf of 3". Gardner. . . 

l8-m ..l.-BIFax 

'_i^^ BP WainfLete . 

30- m CartV Beaufort.. . 

31 _ Totnh of MDeLiuy 

3Z-3eianytons Tomb Jic. 
33_£arl of ForUands Tomb... 

34—^Jiapel of the Yiryin 

36 _ Sanetiiaru 

« These names a/yj inserteif nvm 
U': Miner. 

Aii/itAfA.If^ijS>4ii/ ■'^'WO'-oiL I>^« / 

L: .. 

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X HB diocess of Worcester * is of Saxon origin ^ but at what period 
the city was founded, or blessed with the Christian faith, cannot now 
be ascertained. Every circumstance in its history tends to prove that 
it must have been the seat of Roman art, although no direct historical 
record of the fact now remains to shew it. A British church existed 
here long before the conversion of Wolfere, king of Mercia^ to 
Christianity, but it did not become an episcopal see till about 68Q 
^Heming says 670, and Godwin, with more probability, 679), when 
Ethelred, king of Mercia, at the instance of Osric his viceroy, concur* 
red with archbishop Theodore in establishing a bishop of the Wiccians 
in Worcester. Tadfrid was nominated to the new see, but dying be- 
fore bis consecration, Bosel was consecrated by^ Theodore. This pre- 
late found a church in Worcester, dedicated to St. Peter, which he 
adopted for his cathedral, and which in the next century was com- 
monly called St. Mary^sf. Saxulf, bishop of Lichfield, is sup- 
posed to have been the founder of St. Peter's church. But of this 
establishment very little is known, nor do we find any notice of either 

* Etymologists have not agreed respecting the origin of iti name. By Nenniiis it is writ- 
ten Ctter Onaranganf supposed to be the Brannogenium of Ptolemy. Carte derives its ancient 
appellation Huicca and the Latin Wiccia, from the British Hvkh, a hog ; the people were called 
Hnicdi and-6u4ccii» orJugantes, according to Whitaker, who also traces the Ordo- Vices to 
" the honourable Vices, or Great Huiccii }*' the latter possessed Wales, and were the conquerora 
of the Worcester Huicdi. The Comavii succeeded, and were called Wigantes. By the Saxona 
it was called Weogare-ceaster, Wegeorna-ceaster, and Wire-ceaster. According to Camden*« 
remark on Joseph of Exeter, the latter name was derived fVom the forest of Wire } but Mr. 
Green observes, that this forest is too remote, and is also in part of Shropshire. A cotempo- 
xary writer, Mr. J. N. Brewer, overiooking these observations, expresses his surprise '* that 
nobody has ever supposed it possible that the forest of Wyre may have extended to the south- 
ward, or Severn's banks, and that Wire-cestre may have signified the camp or castle of the 
Wyre.*' This inytmious conjecture was before made, and answered. The Wirecesterof theDoums- 
Say Book was probably derived from Wigora or Wigracester, and this again from Wic-war- 
cester, the city of the men of Wiccia. The derivation of Camden from Wic or Wiches, the 
•alt-springs, s6ems untenable. Wiga-eme, signifying the warrior's lodge with the Saxons, pro- 
bably gave birth to Wigema, Wigracester, Wigomceaster, Wirecester, and Worcester. 

t " The church of St. Peter, in Worcester, it is most probable, was built of stone, as it 
was still in being in the time of St. Wulstan, who sometimes kept his midnight vigils in it. 
(Angl. Sax. II. 347). When of by whom it was demolished we have no accovnt. It is eveo un- 
certain where it stood."— Green. 

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cburch or see till 743, when St. Mary*s church is mentioned in a 
charter of king Ethelred. During this period our prelates lived in a 
manner approaching somewhat to the simplicity and vohmtary piety 
of the apostolic ages. They were influenced by no fantastic rules of 
mechanical devotion^ no capricious regulations of some vain indivi- 
dual, who sought his own reputation more than the glory of God, and 
the welfare of his fellow men. The bishops, at least in the first ages 
of the Anglo-Saxon church, were truly the heads of the clergy, and 
the fathers of the people ', the clerks or members of their cathedrals, 
who performed the regular service, were called their family, and they 
lived in a cenobitic manner in the vicinity of the cathedral. The 
bishops had also the superintendance of all the congregated bodies of 
the faithful in their diocess, and they exercised these functions often 
with truly paternal solicitude, profound wisdom, and enlightened zeal. 
Were not men so prone to error and change, it would be impossible to 
believe that such rational establishments could have ever degenerated 
into such stupid idolatry in the course of a few centuries after. All 
general measures respecting the church were regulated by synodal de- 
crees ; these synods were gradually abolished as the popes gained as- 
cendancy. At such assemblies, the bishop of the diocess always pre- 
sided, and their discussions contributed very materially to diffuse prac- 
tical knowledge among all classes of the people, both clergy and laity. 
Hence the popes felt the necessity of extirpating them, as the surest 
means of arresting the progress of knowledge and unadulterated reli- 
gion. Bishop Wilfrith obtained one of those decrees for annexing the 
monastery of Wudiandun (now Wythington, Gloucestershire) to his 
see of Wigrincestre, after the death of its abbess. His successor Mil- 
dred, to whom it devolved, transferred it to lady ^thelburga, the head 
of a religious establishment in Worcester, on condition that both 
should, on her demise, become the property of the cathedral church 
and see in this city. Many grants and privileges of the Mercian mo- 
narchs and nobles to the convent of St. Mary have abo been pre- 
served 5 but these papers are generally lielieved to be posterior fabri- 
cations, when monk-craft had attained its climax. 

The weak and licentious king Edgar becoming the executor of his 
favourite Dunstan*s cruel and unnatural opinions, the cathedral esta- 
blishments * were now revolutionized, the experience of centuries con- 

* It has been said that Worcester may boast of possessing one pope, four saints, seven lord 
high treasurers, eleven archbishops, besides chancellors, lord presidents, &c. but it has incal- 
culably greater cause to be grateful for having had the protestant mar^rs, bishops Latimer and 
Hooper. The former particularly, vrho first taught us the use of the Bible in his ever memora- 
ble injunction to his clergy, *' that ye and every one of you provyde to have of your owne a Hole 
9yble, yf ye can cooveuyently, or at leaste a New Testament, both in Latin and BngUsbe,*' &c. 


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A. D. 969.] WORCESTER. 

temned, and all the pious zeal and indefatigable perseverance, whicli 
had even extended a knowledge of Christianity before civilization in 
our island, were treated with the most malign ingratitude. Even the 
talents and the labours of the great Alfred were no longer appreciated. 
The social and rational part of the clergy were every where expelled 
from their livings in order to support the ambitious or the fanatical ; 
and fk-om this period we may date the origin of monkery, which after- 
wards wantoned in its abominations. Ethelwold, bishop of Win- 
chester, and Oswald of Worcester, were the aspiring coadjutors of 
Dunstan. These three prelates ruled the king and his kingdom. Ethel- 
wold was, like the archbishop, violent and precipitate ; he drove out 
^ the seculars instantly. Oswald was more cautious ; his first manoeuvre 
was frequent attendance and performance of divine offices at the con- 
ventual church of St. Mary. This artifice attracted the crowd from 
the cathedral, and raised his reputation for extreme sanctity. With 
the multitude a name and semblance have always been sufficient, and 
accordingly Oswtdd*s wishes soon superceded, in the minds of the vul- 
gar, the authority of the decalogue and the moral law. '' He found 
B fit tool in Cyusige or Wynsige, one of the clerks of his college j 
this man he made cyrcweard, or keeper of the sacred vessels, shrines, and 
records of St. Peter's church, in the room of iBthelstan \ to this he 
added the vicarage of St Helen's^ at that time a most lucrative bene- 
fice, having eleven parochial chapels dependant on it.'* Like modem 
usurpers, Oswald endeavoured to insure the success of his measures by 
heaping *'the riqhes plundered from the secular clergy on his followers 

• Oswald's grants of lands to his friends and fautors were confirmed by the king, and im- 
posed a kind of feudal tenure on them. According to Spelman, his tenants were to perform aU 
the duties of horsemen, pay all dues, and perform all rights belonging to the church j swear to 
be in all humble subjection to the bishop, as long as they hold lands of him ; furnish him with 
horses, perform all the work about the steeple of the church, castles, and bridges} fence the 
bishop's parks, and furnish him with hunting weapons when he went to hunt j and, finally, 
they were to obey the bishop in all things as a sovereign lord, and after the expiration of three 
lives, the lands reverted to the bishopric. Hence we see that our prelate had no objection to be 
himself a secular baron, to hold 300 hides of land and two mitres, although he would not tole- 
rate a secular canon. During his thirty-two years prelacy in our see, and in conjunction with 
the archbishopric of York, he issued 70 such grants, disposing of igo hides of land. Two of 
these were given to persons who were distinguished. In 985, the archbishop gave to Oodinge, 
a priest, three hides at Bredicot, and one yard-land at Genenofre, and seven acres of meadow at 
Tiberton, upon condition that he should be the amanuensis of Worcester see, and write all things 
that should be necessary to be inscribed in its registers. This Oodinge performed with ability, 
and wroTe many books for the see. The other grant was to his futhful man iElfstan, of one 
Manse at Ichington, Warwickshire, in 991 j he was the father of St. Wulstan, one of our pre- 
lates, and like most of the married clergy in that and all subsequent ages, much more virtuous 
than the celibataires } he died a monk of this church. The number of seculars in this college, 
observes Green, at different times, may be collected from the signatures to the leases granted 
by the bishop and his venerable family. A provost, seven presbyters, and a deacon, assented to 
a grant of bishop Alhun in 849 } a provost and 14 clerks composed bishop Werfrith*s family in 
07S and 889 } IS sign with bishop Koenwald in 9&4 ; Oswald had at first 18, when two died, or 
were expdled ; the addition of St. Mary's society, consisting of 10, augmented his number to 
•6. This was his complement between 969 and 962, when the sudden reduction of this number 
proves that he had expelled five or six. This sainted prelate of two mitres, however, was a 

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and assistants. '^ To Wulfgar, another collegiate priest, he gave, in 
969, the church of St. Peter by the south wall ; and for his life, and 
two lives after his, the manor of Batenhale. He thus found means to 
gain over so many of the canons, that no obstruction was made to the 
surrender, which, in that year, Wynsige as cyrcweard made of the keys 
of St. Peter*s cathedral lo the monks of St Mary*s for ever. Nay, 
out of the eighteen seculars, of whom the college consisted before, we 
find but two (^fred and ^fstan) wanting in the subscriptions to 
bishop Oswald's charters in 977. Alfred had been a collegian in the 
time of bishop Koenwald, and probably died in the interval between 
^69 and 977* Wynsige and four of the other clerks of the college, 
actually submitted to the monachal discipline, and became, regulars 
professed. The rest were permitted to keep their stalls, and obliged to 
acquiesce in being subordinate officers to a society of monks." 

Our historians have generally believed, although the evidence is 
extremely defective, that according to the acts of bishop Wulstan's 
synod, the cathedral church of St. Peter and its endowments were 
surrendered to the monks of St. Mary in 969, when the latter became 
the cathedral see of Worcester. In St. Peter's church an episcopal 
throne had been erected by Saxulf, the last of tlie Mercian bishops, 
who placed in it about 680 secular canons. The conventual church of St 
]\iary being too limited for the cathedral service, Oswald commenced 
the erection of a new church. To a prelate so opulent, possessing the 
revenues of two extensive sees, and so popular, this could be no very 
arduous undertaking. The site of the new edifice was the churchyard 
of the deserted cathedral of St. Peter, and supposed to be the ground 
now occupied by the west end of the nave in the present church. lo 
983 Oswald finished the building, dedicated it to the Virgin Mary, and 
raised in it no less than twenty-eight altars ! Why he should have 
erected more altars than he had canons to read prayers does not appear. 
The plunder of the married presbyters of St. Peter's bad continued se- 
veral years, but it was not completed till Oswald finished St. Mary'i, 
which henceforward became the cathedral of Worcester, and con- 
tained, says Malmsbuiy, only regular Benedictine monks to the toUl 
exclusion of the married clergy. According to Heming, Oswald was 
accustomed to preach, like the first promulgators of the Christian 

gremter Twolationist than Wolscy or Henry VIII. and contrary to all law and justice he dliln- 
herited the married clergy of seven different monasteries in the diocess of Worcester. To n»»k 
the robbeiy, he procured the pope's sanction, instead of a synodal decree. The monks after, 
wards forged charters of king Edgar to vilify the clerks, asserting that they preferred tlieir 
wives to their benefices. Oswald also had much less reason than Heniy VIII. for such confii- 
cation of property j but the monks were much more cruel and uiyust than the king; the latter 
humanely provided a subsistence for the cloistered religious by pensions or livings, whUetbe 
former dispossessed whole foinilies, men, women, and children, turning them out either t« 
|>eg or starve I —to t- 

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A. D.1089.] WOHCESTBR. 

faith, to large assemblies of people in the open air*, previous to the 
erection of this cathedral church. As he resided chiefly here and very 
rarely at York, it was natural that he should construct a sumptuous 
stone edifice for his see. The ridiculous tales and acts called miracles, 
attributed to him, are unworthy of notice. But whatever may have 
been the character of his cathedral, its duration was of no great ex- 
tent, as it was devastated by the sword and fire in 1041, when our city 
became the prey of Hardicanute's savage soldiery. It is, however, 
difficult to believe, that such a stone building could be rendered incapa- 
ble of repair, or that public service, during forty years, was never 
after performed in it. Had it been a useless ruin, it is not probable 
that Wulstan II. f should have manifested so much feeling X on taking 
it down to erect another. In 1084 this prelate laid the foundation of 
a new cathedral church, and finished it in 1069, with the monastery, 
which was called " Monasterium S. Maria in Cryptis §.** There is one 
circumstance respecting this new church, part of which still con- 
stitutes the choir and lady chapel of the existing building, that merits 
particular attention. It was the custom in that, as well as in succeed- 
ing ages, to raise funds for building churches and monasteries by the 
sale of licences to commit crimes, which were softened down inta 
the papal denomination of indulgences. But, to the eternal honour of 
Wuls^n II, he despised such resources | and to the utmost extent 

* On Uiete occasions our prelate took his station near St. Peter's church, at the cross which 
" Was erected over the stone monument of duke Wifbrd and his lady AUa, who had been bene« 
factors to that church. The monument was deemed an admirable work of art, which was taken 
down by archdeacon Alric, in the time of Edward the Confessor, in order to enlarge the choir 
of St. Peter's. Duke Wiferd's monument seems to have been at the end of High-street } for at 
the distance of a mile northward another stone pile was erected with similar sculpture, which 
was called the White Stane, and gave name to a district or tithing without the city, called Whit- 
•tanes to this day." Suveley and others have stated, that it was the custom of our Christian 
ancestors, before churches were built, to preach in any convenient area, in the open air, where 
troases or crucifixes were erected } hence they derive the origin of crosses in public places, and 
observe that divine service mju performed at St. Paul's cross, in London, a custom which was 
continued on special occasions till the reformation. The fact of preaching is unquestionable i 
ifttt the invention of crosses is comparatively modem } otherwise had the practice prevailed even 
so eariy as the time of Augustine, it is very Improbable that such a gross misrepresentation of 
the crucifixion, as nails being driven into our Saviour's feet, could ever luive been tolerated, 
-contrary to the well-known Roman mode of crucifying in that age. 

t The first Wulstan has been nicknamed the " Reprobate," by the monks; most probably 
because he was' too moral and pious to tolerate their rapacity and licentiousness. 

t It is recorded that this worthy prelate wept when he saw the workmen demolish the ori- 
ginal church ) and on being consoled with the common-place observation of improvement, he 
replied, ** 1 think far otherwise ; we poor wretches destrt^ the works of our forefathers, only 
to get praise to ourselves ; that happy s^e of holy men knew not how to build stately churches^ 
bat under any roof they oflfbred themselves living temples unto God, and by their examples ex- 
cited those under their care to do the same } but we, on the contrary, neglecting the care of 
aools, labour to heap up stones." 

§ Tliis name is by no means very delicate ; but it is much more so than many of the epi- 
thets attached to Maiy in Roman catholic countries, even in the present age. 

I He was bom at Long Ichington, Warwickshire. His father's name was JElfstui, his mo- 
ther's Ulgeva, whence his own name was compounded into Wulstan. This coaple,.agreeable to 
^ the fSuhion of th« age, separated ; and the one became a monk and the other a nun, i^ 
Worcester convents. Wulstan himself took the habit and order of a monk in thb diurdi 

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of his knowledge, would never consent to effiect even a good end by 
bad means ^. 

Notwithstanding the restless spirit of innovation, and no less on- 
{^vemable propensity of making good better, the principal part of St. 
Wulstan*s church still remains. Its original plan was a simple cross, 
a form well adapted to allow great numbers of people to see and hear 
a speaker placed in the centre. Its principal entrance was at the west 
end by a Vestibule or porch, which now forms the great or western 
transept; As no trace of an aperture appears in the walls of this 
transept, it is hence inferred that it must have formed the west ^nt 
of Wulstan*s fabric. *' From this ante- temple or narthcx," observes 
the judicious Green, " of the original cathedral, the entrance to its 
nave (the present choir) was under the rood loft, where now the or- 
gan is placed. Two descents into the crypt were then open ; the one 
under the present ascent to the north aisle of the choir, the stone steps 
into which being still visible within it, and the other now in use, and 
remaining under the ancient ascent, through the great Saxon arch into 
the vestries on the south. This Saxon arch, at the west end of the 
vestry, formed a collateral entrance into the cathedral, from the pre- 
sent great transept ; there was a corresponding arch on the north side 
leading to the ancient lodging of the sacrist. The limited extent of 
this appendage, which never could have gone eastward beyond the 
first window of the north aisle of the choir, together with its situation, 
shew it to have been erected for a pejculiar and select service f . The 
sacrist having the charge of the church and its furniture, this structure 
might be the repository of the sacred vestments and altar implements. 
A small stone*^ balcony having glazed windows and a flight of stone 
step^ within the wall, underneath which was a door of communication 
with the church, now closed up, ar^ still visible between the entrance 
of the north aisle of the choir and its first window.*' From the obser- 
vations of Willis, Abingdon, and others, we n^ay presume that Wiil- 

from bifthop Brihteage, who ordained him deacon and priest ; his progresk was master or 
guardian of the children, neitt chanter, then cyrcweard or treasurer, at length prior, and finally 
buhop. He was consecrated by Aldred of York, in consequence, says Ror. Wlgor. of archbi- 
•hop Stigand*8 suspension. This architectural prelate being an Englishman, and aerer out of 
Sngland in his life, could know no models but such as his country contained. 

• It may also be recorded as a noble trait in tlie moral character of oor city, that the 
•ale of indulgences seems neter to have been practised here, as in other dioceses^ neither by 
Wulstan nor by any other bishops, at least till the prelacy of John ^met, who, in 1S58» 
granted forty days indulgence to those who prayed for the souls of the benefertors of thecap 
thcdral. Another proof of moral temperance is the fact that only one in 35 annually die. 

t The conjecture that it ** might have served as a vestry for the bishop," is very improbable. 
Papal bishops usually vest in their own palaces, and did they not, it is altogether incompatible 
with their dignity to go up and down stairs on such occasions, when they have to distribute 
benedictions with their hands by wholesale, as a fanner sows com by broad cast. It may have 
been an armoiy, the same as we still find in or near Danish clMurcbes. Oswald was of Jkaiah 
•rigin, and nciarly related to Odo of Canterbury. 


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A. D. 1155.] WOBCBSTBR. 

Stands cathedral had a central or principal tower, at it is recorded 
that the new one fell down in 1175, and two smaller ones, say the 
Worcester annals, were destroyed by a storm in 1^2. 

The crypt or croft * furnishes the most unquestionable evidence of 
the great antiquity of this building ; its form is similar to the ancient 
Roman basilics, particularly that of Constantine. Like the crypts of 
Canterbury and Oxford, its ornaments abound in grotesque figures. 
Along its eastern extremity is a series of ornamented arches below the 
lower tier of windows. Its extent is limited to the choir and its aisles, 
including the eastern transept and the two vestries on the south side of 
the south aisle of the choir. Many of the figures on the different parts 
of this ancient structure are decayed, or destroyed to make room for 
monuments. At the east end of the north aisle, a mitred devotee is 
represented kneeUng, and offering a church on the altar ; above him in 
rear a dove is descending, while an angel is ready to receive his ofler- 
ing. This was probably designed either for Oswald or Wulstan 
himself. In the soath aisle an angel is represented as instructing a 
devotee to build a church, the pious man afterwards gives his plan to an 
architect; also, Christ sitting injudgment, the resurrection of the dead, 
and the wicked delivered over entering the mouth of hell, prefigured by 
a monster, with capacious jaws open to receive his prey. '* Respecting 
those sculptured figures," observes Mr. Green, " we find at the west end 
portion of the church, all of them directing their looks eastward, which 
may be considered as very strong evidence that the western extremity of 
Wulstan*s sanctum sanctorum was formed at this division of the present 
cathedral ; for it may be remarked, that all the other heads dr masks, 
applied as ornamental brackets, are made to look across the building at 
the opposite or corresponding head, among which are those of kings and 
bishops, but too similar to attract attention.*' Many of these " cha- 
racters are well conceived and as well executed." The foliage on the 
capitab is luxuriantly wrought, and the zigzag mouldings are neatly 
formed. A corbel table ornament, as it is sometimes called, is carried 
round immediately under the parapet of the whole external eastern 
part of this building. It seems probable that the east end of the crypt, 
which contained many of the privileged altars, and particularly those 
reputed successful in depopulating purgatory, was a visible object in 
the original choir of Wubtan's church, and remained so till the age of 
bishop Giffa^. At first the present choir was the nave having a crypt 
under it, and the part now called the lady chapel was the original 

♦ The Saxon croft, Germtn kraflt, and Latin crypta, are of the lame import and origin, fr6m 
Kpu^rrv. Shonld any one doubt tbia, he may consult the facU adduced by profeuor Marsh, 
in hisadmiiabla Mora PtlMgiem, and ditaertation on the JEolic Digamma, which this learned 
Christian and profound philoaopber baa used for a Ttiy difwent pnrpote. 

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eBoir. In tBe pore ages of Christian worsliip the principal altar was 
at the east end, with the bishops throne ^somewhat in the rear of it; 
but when the doctrine of transubstantiation became general, and 
the host an object of adoration, which must be exhibited to the 
people, the high altar was then placed in the most conspicuoos situa- 
tion. Thb was an act of compassion to the women, whor were excloded 
from the choir of the monks, and yet must see and worship a cup and 
wafer. By the erection of a transept at the east end of the choir this 
purpose was obtained, or by removing the high altar westward to the 
spot, where the cross aisles afforded an open space for the adoriog 
multitude. Hence we have a cause for the adoption of that seemingly 
preposterous and irrational plan, a double cross for churches. It does 
not appear that Wulstan * had any idea of such a thing as the lady 
chapel In liis church ; and according to Willis, it was not till June 
1292, that Nicholas the sacrist '' adorned the church with tabks of 
images placed on each side of that of the Virgin Mary.** About this 
period the wife of Joseph was stiled Regina cce/i or cctlorum, and the 
clergy had then vowed and sworn eternal antipathy to all living wo> 
men in order to husband the fervour of their devotion to a dead one. 

The cathedral of Worcester, like most similar edifices, twice ex* 
perienced the desolating effects of fire. The monks affirmed that Wul- 
stan prophesied this conflagration, and even declared, that the tomb 
of the founder and the mat on which people kneeled before his shrine, 
were neither damaged nor even discoloured by the smoke, nor did any 
ashes fall on them. Nevertheless one monk, two convent servants, 
and fifteen citizens perished in the flames, which took phice June 14, 
1113. On this occasion the walls of the cathedral sustained littte in- 
jury; but in April 17, 1202, the effects of another conflagration^ were 
more serious. It wias some years after this calamity before the edifice was 
restored ; king John was buried in it j but it was not till June 7, 1218, 
tiiat, in the presence of Henry 111. and his nobility, bishop Sylvester 
dedicated the cathedral to the Virgin Mary, the Apostle Peter, and 
Sts. Oswald and Wulstan j " the great alUr was dedicated to St. 
Mary and St. Oswald, and the middle one to St. Peter and St. Wul- 
Stan." The church being now re-edified on the foundation of Wul- 

* This good and great prelate, Lanfratac wished to depose merely becanse he could not speak 
the GaUic jargon of that age, and he most hare shared the fkte of other English prelates, had 
he not evinced great firmness in resisting the iniquitous attempt, by depositing his crosier only 
•n the tomb of hia deceased monarch and benefactor. When prior of the church between I05i 
and 1008, he erected a bell-tower near the north end of the present eastern transept j it was an 
octagon 61 feet in diameter, and 60 high, the walls being 10 thick. Afterwards this base was 
•ormounted with aspire 150 feet high, covered with lead, whence it was called the leaden spire. 
This docherium was taken down in 1647, when men thought they served God by waging^wae 
ifainst steaplea aadf bells^and its materiaU sold for 6I7(* 4«. Sd* 

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A. D. 1^24.] W0BCE8TBR. 

Stan *, the next bishop, W. de Blois, who consecrated the belli of the 
leaden spire in \^90, determined to augment and improve it. Tn 1S24 
he laid the foundation of a new work or nave to the church, which was 
not very improperly called a front. Here we discover much architectural 
skill and address in adaptation. The two ends only of the west front 
(now western transept) were injured by the tire. The west side of this part 
was supported by flying buttresses, one of which, attached to its external 
south-west side, may still be clearly traced, arising between the two 
first windows from which the south wall of the nave commences. Of 
its corresponding buttresses, on the north side, no appearance remains. 
" But we are attracted by the ingenuity of the architect in his manage- 
ment of the double buttresses within, similar in form and height to the 
one first mentioned. The shaft of the inner buttress on the south side 
has been transformed into the first or easternmost pillar of the nave, 
and the lower part of its curve, arising from the capital, forms the 
western limb of the first arch, from the apex of which it is continued, 
and intersects two arches of the first series of arcades above, and joins 
the south-west column supporting the tower, parallel to the spring of 
the transverse principal arch of the nave to the east. The shaft of the 
second or outer buttress, forming the second pillar, being curved in a 
parallel direction with the first, traverses both the lower and upper 
arcades, and joins the supporting column of the tower in a propor- 
tionably higher part. The corresponduig buttresses on the opposite 
or north side are precisely similar, excepting that in the outer one, 
the lower part of its curve, apparently discontinued over the second 
arch, is seen only to rise from the foot of the upper arcade over the 
first pillar, whence it reaches the supporting north-west column of the 
tower. In this manner were those lofty and projecting buttresses 
(originally on the outside of this west front of the ancient church), 
incorporated, and made a part of those noble ranges of columns and 
arches which form the magnificent nave of the present cathedral." 

There is yet another peculiarity in our cathedral, which has excited 
eonsiderable speculation ; we mean the form and height of the two 

* In 1069, forty-eight yeu» after the destmctkm of OtmtldU drarch, Wulstan endoted St. 
Oswald's rdict in a new •brine at the expense of 7ft silver marks. This as well as the former 
ahrine. It is probable, was of the portable kind, and brought forth on emergencies to form 
processions, and ward off any impending calamities. Whatever may have been the miraculous 
influence of these relics in more ignorant times, it is certaia that the last service but one to which 
ihty were called, did not add much to their imaginary reputation. In 1 199, when the army of 
the empress Maude attacked our city, St. Oswald's relics were carried from gate to gate with all 
the musical powers of the choir before them. The procession however neitlier charmed nor 
ftightened the assailants, who eagerly seized the occasion, when the citizens trusted to ashes 
rather than arms, stcHrroed the city, set it on fire in many pUces, and plundered it without 
nercy. It appears that an English letter of Henry VI. was extant last century, in which this 
SKmarch requested the priMy to flatter St. Oswald by a procession of his dust, to send down 

t tain, a dry expedient indeed, th^ issut of which history has not itcorded. 


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western arches of the nave and aisles. Without entering into a minute 
detail of the circumstantial evidence, it appears unquestionable that 
these arches are really " an authentic vestige of St. Oswald's cathe- 
dral/* and that bishop Blois first connected them with the eastern part 
of the building. The work of this bishop (as well as all subsequent re- 
pairs) is entirely composed of the Ombersley red stone, wbich is very 
difiPerent from that in the arches alluded to, and in the transepts^ 
choir, and lady chapel. This circumstance and the fact of their being 
lower than the other arches of the nave and the columns more massy, 
sufficiently prove that they could not have been built by Blois or any 
subsequent bishop. That two detached arches should be raised by Wul- 
Stan seems in the last degree probable, consequently the inference is 
irresistible, they must have belonged to Oswald's cathedraL The mo- 
dulation of the corresponding north aisle was probably effected by 
bishop Cobham, when he vaulted that aisle, or by bishop Wakefield^ 
when he completed the west front. But however this may be, it i» 
evident that the design of Wulstan, or his architect, must have em- 
braced the entire plan of the edifice, otherwise it is impossible to be- 
lieve that such admirable, and in some respects unequalled, proportions 
should have been accidental. He must have most judiciously and cor- 
rectly '^ designed the whole of its relative dimensions in that curious 
order of regular arrangement, that each cross now occupies its re- 
spective extent of space on its own scale of proportion, and although 
raised at different periods, and formed to stand independent of each 
other, they are found so combined as to compose the double cross per- 
fect and complete in all its parts ^.** Nor does it appear that Wulstan*s 

* The following singularly determinate proportions of our cathedral, as stated by Mr. Green, 
sufficiently prove thtft no inconsiderable science was employed in its erection, and that its ar- 
chitects could scarcely be ignorant of Euclid's ElemenU of Geometry.—*' 1. The area of the 
Saxon arches from east to west being 45 feet, is equal to one-fourth the length of the nave, or 
180 feet.— 4. The length of the nave is equal to the distance fh>m the west end of the choir to 
the great east window.— 3. The breadth of the western transept being 39 feet, is equal to one 
fourth its length, or 198 feet.— 4. The same is equal to the breadth of the great window, or 39 
feet.— 5. The distance frum the nave to the eastern transept being 190 feet, is just the length 
of the latter.— 6. The choir from the west entrance to the steps of the altar being 90 feet is pre- 
cisely half the length of the nave.— 7. The length of the lady chapel, induding the breadth of 
the eastern transept to the east end of iu susles, being 74 feet, is equal to iu breadth.— 8. The 
breadth of the aisles of the lady chapel and choir being each 18 feet and a half, are together 37» 
which is just the width of the choir and lady chapel.— 9. The depth of the recess for the great 
east window from the aisles of the lady chapel is 16 feet, being equal to half the breadth of the 
vrindow.— 10. The distance from the eastern transept or bs^ck of the altar to the great east win- 
dow being 60 feet, is just equal to half the length of the eastern transept.— And 11. The height 
of the tower from the floor of the western transept, over which it rises in the centre of the 
Vuilding to the points of its pinnacles, being 19S feet, or equal to the length of the uive (180), 
•ad h«lf the breadth (16 feet) of this transept.**- The relative proportions in the plan of this 
cathedral, which is a double cross, are not less scientific than the general dimensions are syn- 
metrical. The eastern transept, erected by Wulstan, fhmishes a common measure fbr aU the 
other parts of the edifice ; it is governed by the measure of an echo, or 60 feet, the other parts 
heing cither multiples or aliquot parts of this measure. Thus the length of the lady chi^ to 
an echo, the choir two, and the eastern transept itself two. The western tnoisept, ooa^etci 
by bishop Blois, is about two and one-tenth, and the Mve three echoes ia length. 

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A. D. 1886.] WORCESTER. 

building has experienced so mucb alteration * as some similar struc« 
tures. The new nave^ which bishop Blois did not live to finish, and to 
which he converted the remains of Oswald*s church into a vesti* 
bule> no doubt contributed to render the whole church darker. This 
inconvenience soon became so apparent as to occasion an attempt to 
remove it, and from the observations of Leland, we may venture to 
conclude, that the windows were widened and new modelled by bishop 
Wakefield, who finished the work began by Blois, united tbe nave and 
west end, and had the great west window put in. Tbe mention of the 
latter as distinct from his other additions, has been deemed a proof 
that it was an alteration in 1380, and not an original erection. The 
opening of the magnificent west window, (which was remodelled in 
1789, as the east one was in 1792) doubtless rendered it necessary to 
build up the entrance beneath it, traces of which still appear in a low 
but spacious arch, now filled up with stone work. Hence the neces* 
sity of another entrance, and accordingly the present north porch, op? 
posite the centre arch of the nave, was erected in 1386 f. 

It has been supposed that the lady chapel was constructed between 
the period of king John's burial in 1216, and the reconsecration of the 
church in 1218 ; but the inquiry is now of little importance, to the his# 
tory of the edifice X* Bishop Sylvester, after dedicating the church, 

* The two arches at the west ends of the north and south aisles of the choir were most pro* 
bably round Saxon ones, similar to the adjoining ones on the east side of the two ends of the 
western transept. Bishop Giifard (Lei. It.) added the small shafts ** representing grey marble, 
which are of artificial stone, fastened by rings of gilt copper to the originally unadorned columns 
of the choir of the lady chapel, and tlie whole series of windows in this ancient part of the 
cathedral.** These remiun firm and entire, whereas the slender pillars of real marble have gene- 
rally split and crumbled to pieces. 

t During the building of the nare, many bones were disinterred and scattered on the 
ground } bishop Blois immediately ndsed a chapel, which he called the charnel-house, on the 
north side of the pathedral, endowed It, and appointed three chaplains to perform daily services 
for the souls of those whose scattered bones were deposited in its vault. His successor, W. dp 
Cantelupe, in 1965 completed the chapel, dedicated it to Sts. Mary and Thomas, and gave it, four 
chaplains } in 1987 bishop Giffieurd angmented the number to six. The funds being inadequate 
to such an establishment, the chapel fell to decay, and at the reformation was granted by the 
king to the dean and chapter of Worcester. It afterwards passed to the possession of different 
individuals, till it became the leasehold property of J. Price, LL. B. who took part of it down to 
build a new house, and inclose the tenement. The only remidns of this chapel are in part of the 
north and south walls, and the crypt entire j the latter is 58 feet long, 9ft broad, and U high, 
having a great quantity of bones curiously piled up in two rows, fh>m west to east, between 
which there is a passage. The entrance to it at the west end being closed up, a window on the 
south aide is now the only place of access. 

$ On the separation, observes Mr. Green, of the ancient choir f^om the original nave, or 
the change of this nave into a choir, and the original choir into the lady chapel, an enclosure 
was formed of the four sectional pillars of the eastern transept, consisting of a series of small 
arcades on the north, east, and west sides. In I7dft> on removing the two inner pilasters in the 
centre of the altar screen, to admit the picture (Descent from the Cross, presented by him), 
the arcades were discovered, and also some vestiges of inscripUons. Other alterations were 
occasioned by the erection of bishdp Bullingham*s tomb, and on the south side by that of 
Arthur's diapel } the small pillars on both sides are precisely similar. About the same period 
the wall above this tomb was raised to secure a dangerous failure visible in the north aisle of 
the choir. Simifaur means were adopted to support the fabric in the dean's chapel. Probably 
these parts of the eastern transept were damaged hf the fall of the ancient tower which tur- 
I the intersection. 


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WOBCBSTfeR CATHbDRAL^ [a. 1>. 1372. 

had Wulstan's corpse removed and placed in a samptuons shrine ; bat 
he imprudently or indecently divided bis bones, and even sawed one of 
them in two with his own hands, in consequence of which, say Flo- 
rence and our annalists, Wulstan did when dead what he would not do 
while living, revenge a personal insult by putting his successor to 
death. St. Oswald's remains experienced a similar fate * ; but although 
the Danes were never wanting in vindictiveness, either the monks for- 
got to record the name of his victim, or Oswald generously pardoned 
the injury. The chief changes in or additions to the walls of our ca- 
thedral had now been made. The elegant north porch and Jesus cha- 
pel t> which at present contains the font, were erected on the comple- 
tion of the nave. In 1^5, the building actually used as the deanery 
was raised by William de Bedeford, the twenty-third prior, who designed 
it for his own residence and that of his successors. Wulstan de Brauns- 
ford, first prior, and afterwards bishop, built the Guesten hall in 13^, 
for the hospitable entertainment of strangers {. This noble structure, 
DOW the audit-hall, which is 68 feet long and otherwise proportionate, 
continued to be the guesten court, held monthly, for adjusting petty 
differences among the tenants of the establishment till the days of 
Charles I. *' The building is still sacred to hospitality ; and the noble 
entertainments furnished here at the annual audits, do honour to one 
of the most eminent capitular bodies, established by one of the great- 
est of our kings.** The' present § cloisters were constructed about 
1372 5 of the former, ones, to which king John, in 1207, gave 100 
marks for their repairs, no account remains. In the west cloister are 
still seen vestiges of the lavatory, which was supplied with water from 
Henrick-hill, nearly a mile distant, and across the Severn. The chapter- 
house, which is a decagon, 58 feet in diameter, and 45 high, was built 
about the same period as the cloisters. It is supported by a jointed 
small central column, and around it are first an unbroken series of 
semi-circular niches, next a series of intersecting arches interrupted by 

* In the Harieian MSS. we find the following item } " Seynt Oswalde and Sejrnt Ulitans 
bede, with selvr and gylte— and certen relyquies of seynt Oawalde and teynt UUta— » coveryde 
with seWr.**— The pious bone-worshippers were indulged with one other view of their dear-loved 
idols, before they were finally consigned to I he fete of all mortal day. In 15S8, the shrines of 
Wulstan and Oswald were taken down, and their bones with those of bishop de Constantiis, laid 
$n lead, and buried at the north end of the high altar, now probably under the Mosaic work in 
the north aisle of the lady chapel. Daring this process, however, we are told, the lif^tning 
and thunder were so excessive, that the people thought the whole church must have been de« 
■troyed ; bat it seems these wonder-working relics had then ouly the power of making a noise 
without in the least injuring even a heretical edifice. In 1541 the tombs were removed. 

t Over both these structures lodgings were made for the church-watchmen (the powers 
of Oswald and Wulstan being insufllcient for this purpose), and a fire-place is found in each. 

t Among the many absurd rules of the monks was that inhospitable and even immoral one 
of not allowing strangers to dine with them in the refectoiy. Had the manners of these meli 
been holy and good, then interdicting the influence of their example was a'crime against sodety. 

S The vaulting of the doisters is adorned with numerous sculptures, particulariy on the 
key-stone of the centre arch in the north one, where the Virgin and child, the four EvangelisU 
and angels are represented. A seri^ of the kinp of Israel is also poortrayed, bat de{M:ed« 


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A. D. 1374.] VORCESTEB. 

columns, wbicb rising above tbe cornice, and between tbe windows, 
become imposts to the ribs of tbe vaulting; and lastly, a series 
of pointed windows, eacb baving tbree muUions, and terminatiDg 
witb tbree oblong quatrefoils. Tbe noble elegance of tbis struc- 
ture is perhaps not surpassed by any other in the kingdom. It now 
serves tbe double purpose of a council room and library*; tbe 
latter bas received, in modern times, great additions, and is still im- 
proving. Coeval witb tbe chapter and cloisters is tbe refectory, now 
the college hall and king's school ; it is attached to the south cloister, 
and is of the same length, being 120 feet long and thirty-eight broad. 
The next structure in the order of time, was the central tower of tbe 
cathedral. In 1281 tbe executors of bishop Nicholas, according to 
his will, paid sixty marks towards re-edifying tbe tower ; but this ob- 
ject was not effected till 1374, when the present beautiful one was 
finished. The variety and elegance of its sculptured tabernacle work, 
particularly on the upper story, and the figures f between the win- 
dows of the bell room i, contribute to render it perhaps one of tbe 
first towers in existence. The corners are terminated by lofty open- 
work turrets surmounted with pinnacles, forming an elegant and 
natural termination of this exquisite fabric. About the end of the 
seventeenth century the chapter expended several thousand pounds in 
erecting those turrets and repairing the tower, which contributes not 
merely to the beauty but also to the strength and solidity of the whole 
edifice. This part being finished, the next work was vaulting the 
whole building. Bishop Cobham in 1327 vaulted, at bis own expense, 
the north aisle with stone ; this is the first mention of any lapidious 
vaulting in our church. It is said this prelate also vaulted some other 
parts of the cathedral in like manner. In 1375 the chapel of Mary 
Magdalen was vaulted ; in 1376 the choir, western transept, and altar 

* GodlTS, consort of LeofVic, duke of Mercia, among oUif r presents to the monks of the 
cathedral, gave them a library. But it was not till the prelacy of bishop Carpenter in I46i; that 
this necessary appendage was rendered useful ; this prelate established a library in the channel 
house, and endowed it with ten pounds a year to a librarian. In 1041 the library was rc ui ofe d 
to the ch^tep house. The original library is supposed to hate been in one of the apartments 
of the south aisle extending along the whole side of the building, and where also the andeat 
•chool was kept. The ascent to this part is at the south-west comer of the cathedral, on the 
outside, and cut off from all communication with the other parts of the church. It has been 
converted into a depositary or muniment room, were records, wills, &c. are safely preserved. 

t On the west side are the sutues of two bishops and a king, the latter is uncovered and 
-with a beard } on the north, the Virgin and child occupy the centre niche with Oswald on lier 
right and Wulstan on her left; on the east a king (probably Edward III. in whose reign the 
tower was completed) is in the centre, and a prelate on each side of him, perhaps Nicholas de 
Ely and William Lynn } and on the south a king in armour with robes and crown (probablgr 
Henry III. who was present at the consecration) and on each side a bishop, the one holding a 
church in hip hand and the other a crosier. 

t There are now eight bells in tbe tower, bearing the following inscriptions } ** God save oar 
king, 1640. In honore Sci. Wolstan. Epi. Richardo Eedes Decano, 1003. J. G. B. M. Hoc opua 
inspicito, Jesu virtute faveto. Miserere Oeus meur : habeo nomen Gauftreus. (Arms of France 
^d England) . I sweatly loalin^, men do call. To taste on meate that feadt tbe aouk, l048.<* 


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of St. Thomas ^ and in 1377 the nave and south aisle^ library and 
treasury^ were vaulted over. The style of these vaultings * partakes 
of the ages of Henry III. and Edward II. The last work of papal ages 
in this cathedral is prince Arthur's chapel^ chantry or mausoleum ; it 
was erected in 1504> and abounds in all the diversified ornaments which 
appear in Westminster Abbey and King's College chapel^ Cambridge. 
Owing to the fortunate discovery of the late Mr. Valentine Green, and 
the liberality of the honourable dean St. John^ a very considerable part 
of the exquisite sculptures in this chapel, which were concealed by 
plaster since the days of Elizabeth^ are now exposed to public view. 
Its finely-executed statues^ it appears^ were treated as images, and to 
preserve them from total destruction it was deemed prudent to cover 
them over with plaster. To Egwin, the third bishop and first abbot 
of Evesham> has been attributed the introduction of images into the 
churches of Britain ^ and the worship^ it is said, of an image of the 
Virgin Mary gained great fame to the church of Worcester, not only 
in England, but also in foreign countries. Whatever may have been 
the particular notions of this bishop, it is now impossible to determine ; 
but it is certain, that all the descriptions which monkish writers have 
given of his images, bear unequivocal internal evidence of being the in- 
vention of much later ages. *' On the 10th of January, 1549, all the 
images on the high altar, and throughout the church, and all the other 
churches of Worcester, were destroyed ; and on the 17th May 1560, 
the cross and images of our lady were burnt in the churchyard f .** The 
cathedral then abounded in chapels $, many of them containing or- 
gans §, which were chiefly demolished by dean Barlow in 1550. 

We have now traced the ecclesiastical history of Worcester down 
to the period of the reformation, when Henry VIII. re-modelled the 
whole establishment in 1541* Henry Holbeach alias Randes, was 
elected prior of Worcester in 1535 ; in 1540 he surrendered his 

*' * The key-ttonet are oroamented with varioas tculptures } iu Uie lady chapel the 
Virgin and child, bishops Oswald and Wulstan, and king Edgar appear at full length on these 
intersections of the ribs ; the key-stones of the choir are decorated only with foliage. Angds, 
bishops, kings, and monlu are scattered there among extensive nuUting, and the manner in 
which the figures are mutilated proves that they must have been expressive and cbaiacteristic 

t Bishop Blandford's MS. A veiy large image of Mary, held in great reverence, was found, 
when stripped of the vesU which covered it, to be the statue of a bishop, 10 feet high I See 
Burnet, Collier, Staveley, &c. For a more philosophical account of the difference between 
the principles and morals before and after the reformation, see professor Marsh's inestimable 
«* Comparative View of the Churches of England and Bome." 

t The allegation of Thomdike, ** that it was an eariy custom to bury the remains of the 
bodies of eminent saints, especially martyrs, under those stones on which the eucharist was 
celebrated,** is insufficient to account for such numbers of chapels and chantries i a more 
powerfVil cause was the increase of individual fkvouritism, which multiplied saints, and everjr 
one possessing adequate fortune, raised and endowed an altar to his particular god. 

i The chapel of St. Edmund had a pair of organs, that of St. George another, besides the 
great organ of the choir. Such a number of organs in one church is extraordinaiy, and is but 
fiuntly Imitated in the noblest efforts of our triennial music meetings. 


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A. D. 1541 J WORCBSTER. 

priory, and changing his title, became first dean of the protestant <ce, 
ten prebendaries * or secular canons having succeeded the monks f. The 
diocess of Worcester was then diminished X> but not its character for 
piety § and fidelity. In this respect it has some peculiar features 3 its 
loyalty || to its kings, and its enormous sacrifices in their cause, are long 
since recorded in the general history of the country. The number and 
high character of its prelates are well known by their works as well as 
by their monuments in the cathedral. Above thirty of our bishops 
have been interred here ; and their monuments, with those of king 
John, prince Arthur, and other distinguished characters, appear either 
in the accompanying views, or in the ground plan. King John's mo* 
nument (see pi. 8), has attracted no inconsiderable attention during 
several centuries ; and latterly, in consequence of opening the tomb f 

* The entire e«tabli>hment consists of a de«n, 10 prebendaries^ lo minor canons, an orga* 
aist and master of the choristers, eight lay-clerks, 10 choristers, two school-masters, 40 king*t 
scholars, two sextons, two vergers, two butlers, one manciple, two cooks, 10 beadsmen, and 
two porters. Nine of the prebends are in the gift of the crown, and the other b annexed to the 
■ Margaret dit inity chair, Oxford. The bishopric, formerly much larger, now c<msista of nioe 
deaneries, contuning 116 rectories, 75 vicarages, 91 curacies, and 41 chapels. 

t Their plate at the dissolution, amounted to 4,439 ounces of silver, although much 
of it was not weighed} besides ** S holly crossys of gold** and predoos stones, weighing (SO 
ounces, " $ rich myten with golde, periys, and precious stones,** not weighed; and ** 8 chalet 
of golde,** each 40 ounces } altogether 140 ounces of gold. 

t " In 1936,** observes Dr. Nash, ** there were 391 acolites, 379 tub-deacons, 154 deacons, 
and W priests, ordained in Worcester. Before Gloucester and Bristol dioceses were taken o«it 
of Worcester, the ordinations were very numerous. Bishop Hemeahalie^ who presided oaty i(i 
1S37> ordained an incredible number.** Price, Not. Dioc. MS. • 

§ That we may not be suspected of partially in this respect, we shall cite the words of 
an intelligent modem writer, Mr. Brewer. *' It is impossible not to notice the very praise* 
worthy manner In which the Sunday service is performed in the choir } not as a task to be run 
tifver, but with a decorum worthy of the place, and accompanied by a suitable sermon. For here 
there b not a choir with a few stalls (there are 59, the same as erected in 1397)» which forbid 
entrance to all but those who choose to pay } but there are many pews below, as well as gal- 
leries, which are always well Ailed, whilst with a due regard to the accommodation of the hum- 
blest worshippers of their Maker, there are comfortable seats arranged in the centre, which 
alw^rs contain a respectable and attentive auilitory.**— Beauties qf Jf<>ree$unhire, 

I Hence our city certainly well-merited the royal fiivour and the honour of having a royal 
manu&ctory } the latter w now worthy of such patroni^, and it can be safely affirmed, that 
the Worcester porcelain is equal, if not very superior, to any made out of China. The vulgar 
notion of its being more frangible than the French porcelain has been repeatedly proved erro- 
neovs, and the French themselves now admit its excellence in every thing but in the vulgar, 
gaudy, and fleeting colours, which are congenial with the French character, and intolerable to 
English simplicity and '* unadorned elegance.** 

^ The account of the opening of this tomb is curious; after removing the effigy, the sides of 
tomb were found full of rubbish, below which were two strong elm boards enclosing a stone 
coffin with the royal corpse, which lay exactly like the monumental figure, and had been dresse4 
«imihiriy, except that a monk's cowl was substituted for the crown. The bones of the head 
were'a little deranged, both the jaw-bones were detached, although the upper one contained 
four sound teetli ; some grey hairs still existed on the top of the cranium : the arms, thighs, 
and 1^ were found nearly perfect, and vestiges of the nails remained on the toes of the right 
foot. About the abdomen were large pieces of mortar, from which it was inferred that the ' 
corpse bad been removed ftom its original place of interment. The body had been covered wit)| 
a robe, supposed to be of crimson damask with embroidery, parts of which still speared near 
the knee ; the cuff of the left arm remained on the breast, and a sword with a scabbard, the 
latter of which was tolerably perfect, had been placed in the lef^ hand ; the l^s had a kind of 
ornamental covering which was tied at the ancles, but it could not be determined whether in 
the manner of boots or modem pantaloons. The coffin is of Higley stone, and diffierent from 
that <^the tomb; the body measured five feet six inches and an half long, and had then been 
above MO years under ground. One or two of the teeth and some of the vertebrae, are now ia 
the museum of Mr. Barrat, of Gloucester. 

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in July 1797» and finding the skeleton of this monarch almost entire. 
A less mixed feeling perhaps may be awakened by the tomb of William^ 
duke of Hamilton^ who fell at the battle of Worcester in 1651. Bat 
whatever may be our respect for heroism and fidelity, yet a still higher 
sentiment must be excited on viewing the perishable monuments of 
such men as bishops BuUingham, Stillingfleet, Hough, &c. Of the 
" incomparable StiUingfleet/' who first placed the irrevocable seal of 
Ignorance, bigotry, and superstition on the forehead of all who oppose 
the reformation, it is indeed impossible to think without being animated 
by his piety, invigorated and improved by his morality, as well as in- 
structed by his extensive knowledge and irrefragable arguments. As a 
divine he was apostolical, as a theologian truly philosophic, and as a 
man the firm friend of humanity and justice, the champion of liberty 
and of the rights of the poor, and the avowed opponent to tyranny 
and peculation. Many of his successors also merit the grateful admi- 
ration of their country, particularly the late Dr. Uurd, whose elegant 
pen, it was admirably observed by his sovereign on that occasion^ 
" placed a mitre on his head.'* The subsequent visit of the royal family 
jto our city in 1788, and their reception at the episcopal palace, where 
two full-length paintings ot their majesties commemorate the event, 
sufficiently confirm the previous judgment and merit of these exalted 
characters. To record such lives is the happiness of the historian. 


External LENGTH from buttress to buttress east and west 426 ffet; Internal, 394; of the 
laay chapel 00; choir includind the or^au loft 120 ; nave fiom west transept to the west end (in- 
cliidinsr tne two low archrs of Oswald's church which occupy 45 feet) 180 ; of the western transept 
128 J and of the eastern 120. BREADTH of the choir and ladv chapel with their aisles 74 feet; 
each aisle being 18 1-half teet; of the nave and its aisles 78, each aisle being 21; of the wesiein 
transept 32; and the eastern 25 feet. HEIGHT of the choir ceiling 68; of the nave and western 

and 15 broad ; its south one 55 long and l6 broad. The vault under the vestries and south ot the 
crypt» supposed to be h sepulchral chapei, is 45 feet by 15. The f^lass of the great east window is 
45 r^et by 27 ; that of tlie west 45 by 24 1-half feet. The e^st cloister is 125 feet long ; the others 
120 by 16 wide. 

Plate 1, Shews the whole North Side of t>e building from the North Pprch or principal entran ^ 

including Jesus Chapel, now the baptistery,' nave, tower, and north ends of the transepts. 
Plated. Part of the North and East Cloisters, Chapter>house, South End of the .Western 

Transept, &c. 
Plate i. Presents a View of the great East Window, East End of the Lady-chapel, and its fly- 

buttresses } north-east of the eastern transept and the east-end of St. Michael's parish church. 
Plate 4. Part of the Bishop's Palace, West-end of the Cathedral and the River Severn, which 

vrashes the walls of the Palace Garden j this interesting and elegant view is rendered peculiariy 

picturesque and beautiful by the Malvern hills in the distance. 
Plate 5. Interior of the Nave looking North-west; here one of the arches of Oswald church ap- 
pears with the Saxon ornaments around the arches of the second story, great west window, &c* 
^late 6. The Eastern Cloister and Chapter-house— to the right is^the King's School. 
Pkae 7. A View from the Dean's Garden } in which appears the south end of the eastern tran^ 

sept, south aisle of lady chapel, pan of the tower, &c. 
Plaus. The Choir looking Eastward; on the left is the richly carved and very elegant stone' 

pulpit, having on its front pannels the emblems of the Evangelists, and under them the arms 

of England and of the see; before it is the tomb of king John, and on the south-east prince 

Arthur's chapel. 

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*•* The itaUc Utters indicate the pages marked at the bottom of the left sidef 
thus (a) (b) Sfc, and the letter N./or note. 

Arthur* prince, chapel of, p.-*^lhun, bp. 
grant of, e N.— Annory, / N.— Altars, nu- 
neroos, d.— Architect, ingenuity of, c— An- 
glo-Saxon communitiet very judicious and sa- 
lutary, <. 

Bosel, bp. founded a church, a.— Bishops* 
Testry, /.— Blois, bp. built the nave, i, I, & 
K.— Bedeford,prior,built deanery,ii».— Brauns- 
fbrd built the Ouesten hall, ib.— Blandford, 
^ MSS» of, N.— >BulUngham, bp. monu- 
anent of, 9.— Bishops, list of, r.»Bones in- 
terred, IN.— Breif«r,MrUki8 mistake, a N. ; his 
Ipraise of the aerrice on Sunday, p N.— Bar- 
rat, Mr. has some of king John's teeth, p N.-> 
Bi^tisteiy, ^.-^arlow, dean, demolishes or- 
gans, o.— Bishqpric formerly more extensive, 
p N. } number of recUwies, churches, &, ib. 
Christianify, unknown at what period it was 
promulgated in Worcester, a.~ComaTii, a N. 
^ — Churdi, St. Maiy*s, first cathedral, a k b,^ 
C^rreweard, oflBce of, c— Crypt, or croft, ori- 
gin and description of, g & N. — qhamel- 
house, iN.-^hapter-hottse and cloisters built, 
«!.— Carpenter, bp. established a library, • N. 
-'-Churches of Bof^and and Eome, compara- 
tive Tlew of, o N.— Cathedral, built by Oswald, 
di augmented by Wnlstan, c] dedicated to the 
Virgin Maiy, &c. k ] re-edified and enlarged by 
'bp. Blois, i} arches of Oswald's bulldg. still re- 
maining, Jk.— Cobham,bp.modifled and vaulted 
north aisle, ib. flcN.; curious proportions of, 
kV.i dimensions of, 9.— Cantelupe, bp. com- 
l^eted the charnel-house chapel, iN.— Cruci- 
flzion, misrepresentation of, tN.— Charters 
Karged, d N.— Chapels and chantries, why nu- 
inerous, N.— Clergy, married, the moit virtu- 

Dunstan, his crudty, kc, 5.— Danes, vin- 
dictive, «•.— Deaaa, list of, r.— Dimensions of 
tbe cathedral, 9. 

£thelred establishes a bishop «f Worcester, 
#.-^Btym6logists, contradictions of, a N.~ 
Vdgar, the tool of Dunstan, fr.*£thelwold, 
¥p. another ruler of the king, e.— Egwin, bp. 
Arst introduced image-worship into English 
Churches, o,^^Samt vrindow, view of, pi. S.— 
Establishment, cathedml, actual state of, p N. 
Feet, Savioni's, not nailed, t N.->Fires, 
cffecto of, k.— Family of theSazoo bishops, 
number in, cN. 

Grants, fiibricated, h-, Oswald'l, cN.— Gallic 
jargon, unintelligible to a Worcester prelate, 
AM.— Oodivre gave a library to the monks, • 
M.— Green, Mr. his explanation of the figures 
in the ciypt,g} his curious proportions of the 
cathedral, k N. ; discovers the sculptures in 
prince Arthur's diapel, 0.— 43odinge, wrote se- 
veral books for the see, c N. 

Henry YIII. more just and humane than 
the monkish prelates, d N.— Haniicanute*s ra- 
vages, e.— Henry VI. desired a procession of 
Oswald's dust, for rain, 4 N.— Henry Hol- 
lieadi, last prior and first dean, a Sep.— Hoop- 
er, bishop, and martyr, b N.— Hamilton, duke 
<^, his monument, 9«-^urd, bp. a dbtin- 
gttished writer, ib. 

Ittages of Mary, k ; introduced into English 
dmichesy •} bvmt, ib.| a large oae of the 

virgin, when stripped, profved to be the statne 
of a bislu^, ib.r— Israel, kings of^ »N.— Indul- 
gences granted by bp. Bamet,/N. } never sold 
here, ib. 

King John contributed to repair the d<^s- 
ters, fl»} buried here, ij his tomb opened, ji) 
his coflhi, ib. } state of his body, kc. ib.— 
King George III. remark of, on bp. Hurd, f .— 
Key-stones sculptured, 0. 

Lanfhmc wished to depose Wulstan, k M.— 
Leland, observations of, I.— Lady-chapel not 
conceived by Wulstan, ft) proportions of, ic N. } 
built in 1917, i.—Longevity,/N.— Latimer, bp, 
and martyr, b N. 

Mary, image of, whose vrorship was cdo- 
brated, j conveflt of, 6} monks of, d; crypt 
of, indecent name, ekV.i when called regina 
coeli, *.— Mary Magdalen, chapel vaulted, «.— 
Monks, absurd rule of, m N.— Marsh, profes- 
sor, g,&oN. 

Northern, what, /.—Nash, dr. his account 
of ordinations, p N .—Nicholas, bp.contribnted 
to re-edify the tower, n. 

Osrick assisted in establishing a bishopric, 
r«— Oswald the most artlbl enemy of the secu* 
lara, cj bestowed the plunder on his coadju- 
tors, ib. I built and dedicated the present ca- 
thedral, d } more cruel to the seculars than 
Henry VIII. to the monks, ib. N. } preached in 
the open air, <} of Danish origin, ahd a rela- 
tion of Odo, archbp. / N. ) altar dedicated to 
him, hi new shrine of, i N. } two arches of hit 
building stftl extant, k; his remains divided, 
Ml j full length statues of, in varioai parts of 
the church, o.— Organs, numerous in the ca- 
thedral, o N.— Ordinations formeriy very nu- 
merous, and neariy looo persons ordained In 

Feter, St. his church built of stone, a N. | 
married presbyters of, plundered by Oswald, 
d$ originally the cathedral, ib.^Priors, Ibt 
of, r.— PorceWn, Worcester, superior to any 
in Europe, p N.— Plate at the dissolution, p N. 

Boman basilico, form of, g.— Boyal visit, 9. 

Stalls, p N.— Staveley on public preaching, 
• N.— Saxon arches, 1 N.— Stillingfleet, an un- 
equalled writer «.-4axulf, erected a throne, d. 
—Sanctum Sanctorum, g.>—Set boast of having 
had a pope, saints, archbishops, kc. I N. 

Thomdike on burying religious persons, N. 

Vestry, bishops, / N. — Vaulting, first of 
stone, a. 

Worcester, etjrmon of, a N. } bishop of, ib. ; 
church of St. Peter, ib} salubrity of,'/N.} 
royal roanufactoiy in, p N.— Wulstan, his 
sensibility,*} granted no indulgences, ib} an 
English architect, of original genius, / N. } re- 
built the cathedral, e} choir of, made thf 
nave, kc.g} his building littie altered, <| 
made a saint of, and his church dedicated to 
him, hi enshrined, and his bones sawn asun- 
der, iR} his bones buried after the reforma- 
tion, when they could only make a noise, ib. 
N. i origin of his name, e N.— Worshippers of 
bones, m N.— Worship, in the cathedral, coOi* 
ducted with great propriety, p N.— Wiferd, 
duke, monument of, sN.— War against atee- 
pics and bells, AN. 

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Tatfrith 680 

Bosel 680 

OftfororOstfor 691 

Eprine 692 

Wilfred 710 

Mildred 743 

Weremund 775 

Tilhere 778 

Eathored 78S 

Denebert 798 

Eadbert 822 

Aihune or Alwin 859 

WerefHd 873 

JEthelhun 915 
WilfrithorWilferth 9«2 

Kinewold 929 

Piinstan 957 

Oswald 960 

Adulf 992 

WuUtan I. 1002 
Leoffiua or Leoferth 1023 

Brihteage 1034 

Living^us 1039 

Aldred or Ealdred 1046 

Wulstanll. 1062 

Sampson 1096 

Tbeulf or Thewold 1113 

Simon 1125 

John de Pa^ham 1151 

Alured or Alfred 1158 

Roger 1164 

Baldwin 1180 

Will, de Northale 1184 

Robert Pitx-Ralph 1 I9I 

Henry de SoilU 1193 




iEthelsin II. 



St. Wulstan 











Ralph de Bedeford 1146 

Henry Holbech 1541 

John Barlow 1544 

Philip Hawford 1553 

Seth Holland 1557 

J. Pedor or Pedder 1559 

Thos. Wilson 1571 

Francis Willis 1586 

R. Eedes 1596 

James Montague 1604 

Arthur Lake 1608 



J. de Constantiis 1195 
Mauger or Halger 1 1 98 
Walter de Grey 1214 
Silvester de Eveshaml2l6 
W. de Blois 1218 | 

Wal. de Cantilupe 1237 I 
Nicholas de Ely 1266 , 
Godfrey Giffard 1268 | 
W. deGaynesberuwel302 , 
Wal. Reginald 1307 

Wal. deMaydenstonl313 I 
Thomes Cobham 1317 { 
Adam de Orlton 1329 | 
Sim. de Monteacute 1333 1 
Thos. Hemenhale 1337 
Wols. de Braunsford 1339 
J. de Thoresby 1349 
Reginald Brian 1352 
John Barnet 1362 

W. Wittlesey 1363-4 
W. Lynn 1368 

H. Wakefield 1375 

Tideman de Winch- 
R. Clifford 
T. Peverell 
Philip Morgan 
Thos. Polton 
Thos. Bourgchier 
John Carpenter 
John Alcock 
R. Morton 
John Gigles 
Silvester Gigles 
Julius de Medicis 

Senatus 1189 

Peter 1196 

Bandulf de Eveshaml203 
Silvest. de Evesham 1215 
Simon 1216 

Wm. Norman 1222 Bedeford 1224 
Rich. Gundicote 1242 
Thomas 1252 

Rich. Dumbleton 1260 
Wm. of Cirencester 1272 
Rich. Feckenham 1274 
Philip Aubin 1287 

Simon de Wire 1296 
JohndelaWyke 1301 
Wolstan de Braunsford 


Joseph Hall |6l6 

William Juxon 1627 

Roger Manwaring 1633 

Christopher Potter 1636 
Richard Holdsworthl646 

John Oliver 1660 

Tbos. Warmestry 1661 

W. Thomas 1665 

George Hickes 1683 

WilUam Talbot 1691 

Jerom. deGhinaccii 152S 

Hugh Latimer 1535 

John Bell 1539 

Nich. Heath 1543 

John Hooper 1553 
Nich. Heath restoredl553 

Rich. Pates 1554 

Edwin Sandys 1559 
J. Calf bill (nominated) 

Nich. BuUingham 1570 

JohnWhitgift 1577 

Edmund Freake 1584 

Rich. Fletcher 1592 

Thos. Bilson 1596 

Gervase Babington 1597 

Henry Parry I610 
John Thornboroughl6l6 

John Prideaux 1641 
See Vacant Ten Years, 

Geo. Morley I66O 

John Gauder 1663 

John Earle 1662 

Robt: Skinner 1665 

Walter Blandford 1671 

Jas. Fleetwood 1675 

Wm. Thomas 168^ 

Edwd. Stillingfleet 1689 

Wm. Lloyd 1699 

John Hough 1717 

Isaac Madox 1743 

James Johnson 1759 

Hon. B. North 1774 

Richard Hurd 1781 
FoLLioT Herbert 

W. Cornwall 1808 

Simon de Bottler 1339 

Simon Crompe 1339 

John de Evesham 1340 

Walter Leigh 1370 

John Green 1388 

John Malvern 1395 

John Fordham 1423 

Thomas Ledbury 1438 

John Hertilbury 1444 

Thomas Musard 1456 

Robt. Multon 1469 

Wm. Wenloke 1492 
Thomas Mildenham 1499 

John Weddesbury 1507 

Wm. Moore 1518 

H. Holbech 1535 

Francis Hare 1715 

Jas. Stillingfleet 1726 

Edm. Martin 1747 

John Waugh 1751 

Sir R Wrottesley 1765 

WiUiam Digby 1769 

Hon. Robt. Foley 1778 
Hon. St. Andrew St. 

John 1783 

Arthur Onslow 1795 

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Ihb period at ivbicb a metropolitical church was establbhed at York, 
and the circumstances connected with an event so important in eccle- 
siastical annals^ have necessarily excited much ingenuity in speculative 
writers^ and a correspondent proportion of more valuable labour in 
persons desirous of separating simple facts from the exaggerations of 
fancy, and the misrepresentations of prejudice. The reader has been 
reminded, in many previous pages, of the deficiency which prevails in 
regard to credible historical testimony respecting the progress of Chris- 
tianity, during the sway of the Romans in Britain, and in the early 
ages of their Anglo-Saxon successors. According to Matthew of 
Westminster, William of Malmsbury, and other cloistered authors, 
York constituted an archiepiscopal see within the second century after 
the first preaching of the gospel. But the assertions of such writers 
are principally of use, as themes of discussion with those curious 
students in antiquity, who delight in establishing the resemblance of 
probability on the basis of conjecture. The rational historian of Chris- 
tianity feels little concern in the result of the inquiry j — for mere 
shadowy names, or casual transactions, unconnected with the vital 
interests of the church, are all that could be produced, even if the 
suspicious allegations of monkish writers were proved to be worthy of 

The earliest satisfactory intelligence, relating to this arch- 
bishopric, is afforded by venerable Bede. On his authority, chiefly, are 
presented the following particulars, which have met with reception 
amongst the most critical and judicious investigators of history in 
every succeeding age. — In the year 625, shortly subsequent to the first 
partial conversion of the Anglo-Saxons, through the ministry of 
Augustine (an event which has met with many remarks in our history 
of Canterbury cathedral), the propagation of Christianity in the North 
was accelerated by the marriage of Edwin, king of North umbria, 

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with the daughter of Ethelbert^ king of Kent. This lady bad been 
bred in the christian faith by her celebrated mother^ the protectress of 
Augustine ; and, rising superior to the effect of evil examples which 
thickly accumulated around, she persisted in stipulating, as an article 
of marriage with the Northumbrian king, that she, and her attend- 
ants, should be allowed the free exercise of their religion. The libe- 
ral Edwin agreed to this condition, and eventually became himself a 
proselyte to the christian faith, as enforced by the arguments of Pau- 
linus, the spiritual guide of his queen, and one of the missionaries 
sent to England by pope Gregory. On Easter-day, 627, the king, 
together with most of the distinguished persons who composed his 
court, received baptismal benediction from the hand of iPaulinus, in 
the city of York. 

Paulinus, as we are told, had been previously consecrated arch- 
bishop of the North by Justus, who exercised archiepiscopal power in 
the South. He was now solemnly placed in that situation by his 
regal convert j and shortly after received his pall from Honorius, who 
had succeeded to the papal throne, . In the person of this prelate we 
view that efficient foundation of the see, which is usually received as 
the earliest date of its authentic history. It must, indeed, be futile 
to go higher in the stream of time for events of a credible character, 
or of solid interest, when we observe that Paulinus found, within the 
whole city of York, no religious temple deemed sufficiently capacious 
and respectable for the baptism of king Edwin and his courtiers, but 
was constrained to raise, for that memorable celebration, a fabric 
composed of wood. The piety of Edwin led to the immediate com- 
mencement of a more durable pile, at once the monument of so im- 
portant an occurrence, and a dignified seat of episcopal care. 

The progress of events generally connected with this archiepis- 
copal see, will be discussed in our biographical notice of the prelates 
most conspicuous for actions of a public or a local import \ whilst the 
history of those cathedral buildings which moved onwards in grandeur 
proportioned to the power of the archbishops, will meet with attention 
in pages devoted to an architectural account of the existing beautiful 

Paulinus appears to have ably fulfilled the duties of his arduous 
situation. Unusual, indeed, were the energies of mind required in 
the prelate who first endeavoured to win by argument, and to amend 
by example, the unlettered and ferocious tribes of the North ! The 
aid of the governing power was necessary in times so barbarous, even 
to the secure dissemination of those doctrines which partook of no 
party spirit, and had no possible aim but that of encouraging mankind 


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in a study of their best interests. Whilst Edwin occupied the throne, 
the exertions of our archbishop were attended with more success than 
could have been anticipated by the warmest zeal of piety. His acti<* 
Tity was unbounded; and his views comprehensive 5 as an instance of 
which it may be remarked that he built, at Lincoln, a church of 
stone^ which was not only much admired as a structure, but was 
attended by numerous converts, including persons of an elevated rank. 
This prosperous procedure of our religion experienced a lamentable 
interruption through the death of the powerful Edwin, who fell in a 
battle with Penda, king of the Mercians, in the year 633. Deprived 
of his protecting arm, the rising spirit of truth struggled in vain 
against the murmurs of a pagan and factious multitude. Convinced 
of the utter hopelessness of perseverance, Paulinus retired to Kent, 
and passed the remainder of his life in the exercise of pastoral duties 
as bishop of Rochester. 

Wilfrid, the third archbishop, was one of the most distinguished 
prelates of the age in which he flourished. His early aspirations after 
knowledge were greatly favoured by a journey to Rome, then the 
emporium of science and literary intelligence. His improvement 
in the useful and ornamental arts, whilst engaged in foreign travel, 
was of unquestionable benefit to his native country, and entitles him 
to an honourable place amongst those early ecclesiastics who aug- 
mented the temporal advantages of society whilst prosecuting religious 
labours.' Owing to the convulsed state of the times, Wilfrid was 
twice expelled from his see. During the years of his expulsion, two 
archbishops were successively appointed. Bosa, who attained this 
mitre in 677, shortly subsequent to the removal of Wilfrid, is memo- 
rable as the first archbishop that was buried in the cathedral of York. 

Wilfrid (second of that name, and sixth archbishop) has obtained 
an unpleasing notoriety in eccleisiastical annals, as the prelate who 
commenced a dispute with the archbishops of Canterbury, respecting 
priority of rank.' Whilst the acknowledged primate of our northern 

1 Wilfrid is detcrredly celebrated for the numerous architectural piles which he raised, to 
the honour and advancement of the christian faith. Amongst these the churches of Hex* 
bam, in Northumberland, and Ripon, in Yorkshire, were the most splendid. The former 
church was greatly superior to any which had been erected by the Anglo-Saxons, and is a 
ftiTOurite subject of allusion with critics in the history of our ancient architecture. The life of 
this archbishop was written by Eddius, contemporary with Bede ; and is one of the most 
curious pieces of biography extant. The principal cause of Wilfrid's expulsion from York, 
proceeded from his opposition to the measure adopted by Theodore, archbishop of Cantertiury, 
in dividing the diocess of York into two, and subsequently four, bishoprics. During the period 
of his expulsion, Wilfrid had the gratification of converting the kingdom of the South Saxons } • 
thus completing the reception of Christianity throughout the whole of the Saxon octarchy. 

S We attribute the commencement of this dispute to Wilfrid, on the authority of William 
of Malmsbury. The contest for precedency between the two archiepiscopal sees came to an 
open rupture in the time of Thomas II. (twenty-seventh archbishop of York) and produced, 
through many succeeding ages, scenes of indecorons altercation, injurious to the real interests 


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. YORK CATHEDRAL^ [a. D. 1068. 

ehurch was thus struggling for an augmentation of titular dignity^ the 
sovereigns of the diflPerent Anglo-Saxon states were engaged in wars, 
which led, with sanguinary but sure steps^ to the consolidation of 
those petty governments beneath one massy and comprehensive crown. 
It is lamentable to find the attention of our prelate bestowed^ in times 
so perilous, on an article of episcopal and personal splendour. The 
»ra called loudly for the exercise of -different energies. But war and 
ambition engrossed the minds of nearly all ranks at this gloomy period ; 
and we have, therefore, little cause to regret that the see of York lay 
vacant for several years after the decease of the second Wilfrid. Al- 
bert, consecrated in 767« was a native of York, descended, as is be- 
lieved, from a noble family. He is described as having made con- 
siderable literary attainments during bis youth ; and he afterwards 
augmented and matured bis stock of knowledge, by journeys to 
Rome, and other eminent seats of learning. His love of science 
reflects honour on the period in which he flourished, and was dis- 
played, with peculiar munificence, in a restoration of his cathedral 

The conduct of the churchmen who attained episcopal power in 
England at the time of the Norman Conquest, is invariably a subject 
of curious inquiry j and is obviously of peculiar interest in regard to 
those who were advanced to the metropolitical sees.— When William, 
duke of Normandy, triumphantly entered England, and assumed its 
crown, the see of York was occupied by the Saxon Aldred. The cha- 
racter of this prelate appears to have been well adapted to the troubled 
ages in which he lived, as far as boldness and policy were required : 
concerning that tender spirit of true charity, and humility of religious 
demeanour, which form the christian priest's best attributes, at all 
times, and in all ranks, his biographers are silent. In fact, this pre- 
late occurs, in the record of our public annals, chiefly as a successful 
politician. Viewed in this light, the fortitude ^hich he displayed 
under circumstances of unusual difficulty, is calculated to surprise the 
reader who duly recollects the abject state of many Anglo-Saxon dig- 
nitaries at the same eventful period of history.* Aldred was indebted 

of the christian church. The order of precedency was established, as it now exists, daring the 
pontificate of John Thoresby, forty-fourth archbishop, temp. Ed. III. ; at which time it was 
arranged that the archbishop of Canterbury should be styled primate qf all EttgUmd, and the 
archbishop of Yoric, primate of England. 

3 Alcuin, an ecclesiastic employed by Albert, as joint architect with Eanbald ^afterwards 
advanced to the archbishopric) in rebuilding the cathedral, has left a curious poetical memorial 
of his patron, and the work in which he was engaged, intituled De PotUifidbtu et SmcCu EccU' 
aimEbor, published by Dr. Gale, in 1691. 

4 It has been stated that this prelate treated the haughty Norman conqueror ^ith little per- 
sonal respect. The following anecdote displays William I. in a light very different horn that 
in which he is ordinarily considered. Offended, as we are told, with the fheriff of Yorkshire, 


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A. D. 1191.] Y0KK8HIKE. 

for his first elevation to Edward the Confessor. On the decease of 
that king, he became the partizan of Harold, and performed the cere- 
mony of his inauguration. The refusal of Stigand, archbishop of 
Canterbury, to render the same service to the conqueror, afforded a 
favourable opportunity of political advancement to the more pliant 
Aldred. He crowned the victorious Norman ; and retained archie- 
piscopal authority until the time of his death, in 1069. This prelate 
had sufficiently shewn, in contributions to the churches of Beverley 
and Gloucester, that fondness for architectural magnificence which 
corresponded with his habitual love of power and ostentation ; but 
the term for which he presided over the province of York, subsequent 
to the advent of the Normans, was too brief to admit of his display- 
ing a rivalry in splendour with the prelates of the new dynasty. The 
honourable opportunity of evincing an enlarged spirit in architectural 
design and arrangement, devolved on his Norman successor. 

Thomas (the first archbishop of that name) possessed piety, ta- 
lents, and liberality for the creditable exercise of the important duties 
to which he became subject. • The destructive operations of the united 
Danes and Northumbrians, had reduced the cathedral, in the year 
1069, to a state bordering on utter ruin. He achieved the restitution 
of the fabric upon a noble scale ', and regulated the constitution of the 
see, to its lasting benefit.* William, the thirtieth bishop, was nephew 
of king Stephen, and is memorable as having received canonization, 
which distinction was conferred about one hundred and twenty-five 
years after his decease. Saint William presided little more than twelve 
months in the see of York ; and his name is chiefly entitled to notice, 
in an historical survey so succinct as the present, on account of a gor- 
geous shrine, formerly ejiisting in our cathedral church, at which, 
according to monkish writers, numerous miracles were worked, through 
the influence of his canonized remains. 

Geoffrey Plantagenet, consecrated in 1191, was natural son of 
king Henry II. by Rosamond ^e Clifford. Historians differ in regard 
to the general character of this distinguished person ; but no writer 
of consideration denies that in his demeanour, as archbishop of York, 
he was entitled to the uniform approbation of the judicious and disfn- 

our arcbbishop hastened to Westminiter, and appeared before the king, habited In pontifica* 
libus, and attended by a numerous train. He accosted his sovereign with a heavy curse, if he 
did not grant his suit. William, either through surprise or policy, bent his Icnee to the iipp*- 
ratiTe churchman. The attendant nobles indignantly interfered, and trould have assisted in 
promptly raising the king from a situation so unusual} but Aldred exclaimed, "SundoffI let 
him lie there : it is not at my feet, but at those of St. Peter, he is prostrate.** 

5 Willis, in his " Surrey of Cathedrals,** observes that archbishop Thomas I. « divided the 
esute of the church into prebends, appointing a dean, precentor, chancellor, and archdeacr ns,»» 
as those dignitaries remain at the present day. 

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YORK CATHEDRAL, [a. D. 1466. 

terested. Walter Grey, who succeeded this illuatrious prelate, was a 
^▼ourite counsellor and minister of king John. His conduct in a 
political capacity is, perhaps, open to some censure ; but those who 
treat upon the history of the see to which, he was promoted by the 
favour of his sovereign, have the pleasing duty of recording many 
instances of munificence, which are truly estimable monuments to his 
fame, since his moderation, in regard to personal expenses, was suffi- 
ciently observable to cause the imputation of parsimony.* William dc 
Melton, ^ho was raised to this see under the immediate protection of 
king Edward the Second, evinced a becommg liberality of disposition, 
and a due attachment to the diocess, by splendid contributions to the 
cathedral and contiguous buildings. John Thoresby, foity-fourth 
archbishop, also claims the grateful applause of posterity, for his im- 
provement of the cathedral -church. Thomas Arundel, translated 
hither from Ely, in 1388, a£fords the first instance of an archbishop 
removed from this see to that of Canterbury. 

Richard Scrope has obtained an unhappy celebrity in history, from 
the zeal with which he entered into a rebellion against king Henry IV. 
At this distant day, when party feelings have entirely subsided, few 
will refrain from approving the loyal attachment which our prdate 
displayed towards the ill-fated Richard II. But the sword, especially 
when exercised on a question of political ascendancy, ill became the 
hand professedly devoted to the crosier. Warmth of temper is usually 
accompanied by imbecility of judgment ) our armed bishop having, as 
has been said, '^ too much sincerity for a politician,'* was trepanned inta 
a deceptive convention: Disbanding the forces which he was not calcu- 
lated to command, he was consigned to the scaffold, and was beheaded 
in a field near Bishop Thorpe, where he had formerly resided in archiepis- 
copal dignity. His calamitous end afforded the first instance of a 
bishop suffering death in England by any form of law. George Ne- 
ville, fifty- second archbishop, was brother of the powerful earl of 
Warwick, who performed ^o distinguished a part in the wars between 
the houses of York and Lancaster. The inthronization feast of this 
prelate was conducted with such unusual splendour, that it has been 
considered worthy of notice in general histories of Great Britain.' 

6 This prelate founded the sub-deanery and succentorship, together with two prebendi, in 
our cathedral-church. By him was purchased the house, since called White Hall, which was 
for a long time enjoyed by bis successors, as a residence in London while attending parliament- 
ary duties, under the name of York Place. It roust, likewise, be noticed that he bought, and 
settled on the sec, the manor of Thorpe (now called Bishop Thorpe), where is the only 
remaining palace attached to the archbishopric. 

7 This feast took place on the 15th of January, 1466$ and is supposed to ha^e been the 
roout mugnificent entertainment ever given by an English subject. An idea of the pUnty which 
prevailed may be conveyed by observing that looo " mutton8,»» or sheep, and SOOO pigs, were 
provided. Amongst articles at present unknown to the tables of English banqueters may be 


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A. D. 1566.] T0BK8HIBB. 

The decease of archbishop Bainbridge^ who perished by means of 
]K>ison^ administered by an Italian priest, his servitor, made way for 
a prelate of transcendant celebrity, cardinal Wolsey. Our limits pre- 
clude us from an investigation of a character, so intricately blended 
with the labyrinths of state transactions. When we reflect, however, 
that the public impression respecting Wolsey's political conduct, is 
asually received from the writings of the calumnious Polydore Vergil, 
and those who copy the insinuations of that base chronicler, we may 
readily suppose that an exaggerated idea prevails, respecting the im- 
perfections almost inevitable to the perilont soil of unexampled prospe- . 
rity. As archbishop of York, the character of Wolsey demands little 
attention. Himself acknowledged, when sinking on a bed of extreme 
suffering and ntter despondency, that his active services had been ren- 
dered to his king rather than to his God ! He did not visit the seat of 
his archiepiscopal dignity, whilst inflated with a plenitude of political 
power. In the year 1530, when disgraced at court, he repaired to 
the palace of Cawood, and made preparations for a public entry into 
York, and a magnificent inthronization. It is well known that he 
was arrested for high treason, before he could carry these intentions 
into effect, and died at Leicester, lamenting the fatal error of devotion 
to an earthly power, which *^ forsook him in his grey hairs !'* 

Robert Holgate, advanced to this see in 1544, must unhappily be 
noticed as one of the most venal instruments of king Henry VIII. 
Within a month after the translation of this accommodating prelate 
from Landaff to York, he alienated to the crown sixty- seven manors ; 
for which act of pillage, he appears to have received ample personal 
recompense. In the reign of Mary, and during the prelacy of Nicholas 
Heatii, most of these estates were restored. Strict justice requires 
that we should mention the faithful statement of Willis, who observes, 
" that the see of York owes more than a third part of its present 
revenues to queen Mary and archbishop Heath.** At the time of 
Mary*8 death, our prelate was chancellor of the realm ; and, under the 
authority of that office, he convened the nobility and commons, for 
the purpose of protecting the succession of Elizabeth. In common 
with thirteen other bishops, who adhered to the ancient form of 
religion, he was expelled his see by the new queen ; but Elizabeth 
honoured him with personal friendship, and is said, by the Author of 
the Speculum Anglorum, to have frequently visited him in his 

noticed 8 wild bulls, 400swuis, 104 peacocks, €04 cranes, 904 bitterns, 400 heronshaws, and it 
•' porpoises** and seals. At this festiTal were present the duke of Gloucester (brother to Ed- 
ward iy.}| and nearly all the nobility, bishops, and leading men in the kingdom. ^ 


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YORK CATHBDKAL^ , [a. D. 1641. 

The bull of pope Paul tbe fourth, confinniDg the election of this 
prelate, was the last instrument of the kind acknowledged in the see of 
York. In the list of succeeding prelates, we find men distinguished in 
ecclesiastical annals for piety, talent, and the only just criterion of a 
qualification for the exercise of exalted powers— self-government. 
£dmund Grindal, successively bishop of London, archbishop of York, 
and primate of all £ngland, as archbishop of Canterbury, was a 
zealous assistant in the great work of reformation^ and was, conse- 
quently, one of the select members of the protestant church appointed 
to hold disputations with the rpmanists, in the reigns of Edward VI. 
and Elizabeth. In his last venerable years he became blind, and was 
desirous of resigning the public duties which he had no longer capacity 
to fulfil to the satisfaction of his conscience ; but was prevented by 
the will of his sovereign. Edwin Sandys emulated the best virtues, 
and most useful talents, of his predecessor. This prelate was one of 
the eight divines appointed to argue with the same number of Roman 
catholics before the two houses of Parliament. Tobias Matthew was 
greatly celebrated as an eloquent and energetic preacher. His talents 
were held in high esteem by queen Elizabeth and James I. ; but he 
has not left any traces of merits so peculiar, as to justify tbe extraordi- 
nary terms of commendation bestowed by the writer of his epitaph in 
our Cathedra I. • 

During the early part of those troubles which convulsed England 
in the 17th century, the arcbiepiscopal mitre of York was sustained by 
Richard.Neile. The unshaken loyalty of this prelate, and his strenuous 
efforts towards the preservation of the church, as established at the 
aera of temperate reformation, caused his name to be execrated by the 
puritanical party ; but it should never be forgotten, that the utmost 
malignity of his revilers left untouched his reputation for private worth. 
John Williams, who was raised to this archbishopric in 1641, had 
taken part with the king in the beginning of the troubles, but afterwards 
went over to the parliament, and commanded at the siege of Conway 
castle. This want of stability procured him general and merited 
contempt. On the temporary subversion of the hierarchy, he retired 
to Wales, where he died, neglected by tbe parliamentarians, and 

8 This epiuph is a curious imitance of that inflated style of composition which defeats Its 
own object, and really operates to the discredit of the deceased, by enforcing comparisons which 
cannot sund the test of dispassionate examination. In the long and tedious Latin Inscription 
to the memory of this prelate, we are told, that «« Greece will not, hereafter, have more cause 
to boast of her Chrysostom, than England of her Matthew. The yirtues with which he adorned 
the archbishopric exceed the province of the sculptor j—history alone can do them justice." After 
the lapse of nearly two hundred years, we search in tain the pages of general history for the name of 
Tobias Matthew. Locally, his name often occufs, on account of a contribution of books, made 
hy his widow to the cathedral libraiy. 

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A. D. 1746.] YORKSHIRE. 

despised by the royalists.' Richard Sterne, consecrated in 1664, had 
been chaplain to archbishop Laud, and attended that prelate on the 
scaffold. His depth of erudition, and personal respectability, assisted 
in convincing the world that the clergy who had suffered exclusiv^n 
under the authority of parliament, were calculated to reflect honour, 
and to confer benefit, on christian society. 

John Sharpe, seventy-fifth archbishop, may be held forth, with 
honest pride, as one of the most able and exemplary prelates that adorn 
^ the annals of the reformed church. In regard to his talent for the 
dignified situation to which he was nominated shortly after the 
Revolution of 1688, it may be sufficient to cite the remark of bishop 
Burnet : '* By the appointment of Sharpe to the archbishopric of York, 
the two metropolitical sees were filled by the two best preachers of our 
time.'* — It must be nearly superfluous to observe that Tillotson filled 
the see of Canterbury at that period. Thomas Herring, promoted hither 
from Bangor, in 1743, has been said, and perhaps without exaggeration, 
to have united in his person the most amiable qualities of the best of 
his predecessors. '^ The magnificence and penetration, without the 
pride, ofWolsey; the mildness and moderation, without the timidity, 
of Sandys ; the learning of Sharpe, with the politeness and affability 
of Dawes." This prelate evinced great courage and di&cretion at a 
period of peculiar difficulty, the disturbed year 1745. At this crisis 
he came forward, and declared to his clergy, ^' that be should think 
it np derogation from the dignity of his character, or the sanctity of 
his function, in times when the religion and liberties of his country 
were at stake, to change his pastoral staff for a musjiet, and his 
cassoc for a regimental coat.** His conduct on this occasion is more 
decidedly entitled to our approbation, as it arose from religious con- 
viction and a principle of civil allegiance, rather than from a personal 
attachment to the governing power. Robert Drummond distinguish- 
ed himself by the sermon which he preached on the coronation 
of bis present msyesty. In this pious, manly, and patriotic discourse, 
are contained some fine maxims of government, equally calculated for 
the honour of the prince and the advantage of the people. To this able 
prelate succeeded William Markham, whose virtues, still fresh in recol- 

9 The principal buildings of our cathedral were happily preserved from important depreda- 
tion, during these disastrous wars. Willis, and several other writers, state this freedom from 
serious injury to have arisen from the liberal orders of forbearance given to his fanatical soldiers 
by sir T. Fairfax. The care of the general could not, however, prevent those deluded persons 
from destn^ing several pieces of venerable sculpture, and stripping the grave-stones of all 
eflgies and inf criptioas, engraved on metal. Drake, in his ** Eboracum,** pointedly remarks, 
" that it was more the poor lucre of brass, than zeal, which tempted these miscreants to the 
latter act f for there was no grava-stone, which had an inscription cut on itself, that was defaced 
hf any thing but age throughout the whole church.** 

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YOHK. CATHBOBAL^ [a. D. Il54. 

lection, are universally acknowledged. The hononrable Edward 
Vbnablbs Vbrnok, eighty- thirds and present archbishop, was pro- 
moted from the see of Carlisle to that of York, in the year 1808. 

Previous t6 a descriptive account of the present cathedral church, 
it must be desirable to present some brief notices respecting tbe 
structures, of inferior extent and beauty, which occupied the same site 
in centuries preceding the Norman Conquest. We have already 
observed that a church, composed of stone, was founded at York by 
king Edwin, in 627. This building fell into dilapidation, during the 
wars which speedily ensued between the Northumbrians, and Penda, 
king of Mercia ; but was repaired and improved by archbishop Wilfrid, 
about the year 669. The re-edified structure experienced great damage 
from fire, in 741, and is said to have been wholly taken down, and 
rebuilt by archbishop Albert, who was promoted to this see in 767.'* 
This Anglo-Saxon edifice appears to have been of a durable character, 
and to have possessed much comparative grandeur. Assisted by repairs, 
it probably stood until 1069, when we are told that the Cathedral was 
unintentionally reduced nearly to the ground, by conflagration. In 
that year the Northumbrians, aided by the Danes, took arms against 
the government of William I. The Norman garrison of York set fire 
to certain houses in the suburbs of the city, lest they should prove 
serviceable to the enemy ; and the flames accidently spread to buildings 
not designed for destruction, including the venerable church. 

Such was the situation of the see when Thomas, our first Anglo- 
Norman prelate, received the pall. This prelate rebuilt the cathedral 
on a more noble scale than had been hitherto adopted 5 but the struc- 
ture on which he bestowed such exemplary attention was destroyed by 
a casual fire, which likewise consumed the greater part of the city, in 
the year 1137- After this lamentable accident, the church lay in 
ruins until the time of archbishop Roger, promoted A. D. 1154, who 
commenced, and successfully prosecuted, a re-edification of the eastern 
division of the building. No relic of the works executed under his 
notice now remains, unless we suppose, with the author of ^' Ebo- 
racum,** that the crypt formed a part of the renovations which he 
effected. The most ancient portion of the existing pile (with the ex- 
ception of the crypt) was erected in the reign of Henry III. The 
principal divisions may be justly said to present the noblest specimens 
extant, of the architectural style which prevailed in the fourteenth 

10. The curious poetical woric of Alcuin, through which a due notion of the architectural 
munificence of Albert is transmitted to posterity, has 1>een mentioned In our biographical 
allusions to this eminent prelate. 

11 It will be ttsefttl to state, in this place, tbe dates usually ascribed to dUferent parts of 


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A. D. 1819.] YORKSHIRE. 

This cathednd-charch (often termed York Minster) is^ indeed, 
allowed^ even by such examiners as are free from local prepossession^ 
and found their estimate on extensive and candid comparison, to excel 
in beauty and magnificence most ecclesiastical buildings of the middle 
j^es. In viewing the exterior, our attention is first demanded to the 
west front. This splendid facade, is not more conspicuous for ple- 
nitude of ornament, than for an attractive harmony of design. The 
elevation is architecturally divided into three parts ; the principal ob- 
jects being the grand entrance, and the spacious window by which it is 
surmounted. The four buttresses, which form the lines of division, 
are enriched with many niches, frequently containing statues ; and 
other pieces of sculpture are introduced at the angles. Above the four 
grand dividing buttresses rise the two western towers, — the upper divi- 
sions being incongruous in design to the prevailing character of the 
structure, but commanding the admiration of the spectator. 

On the south side we find, to the extent of the nave, a fine ac- 
cordance with the style of the west front. The architecture is here 
chastened in point of ornament, but the decorations are still numerous, 
and the buttresses are adorned with niches and statues. The transept, 
although of an earlier date, and less elegant in design than the nave, 
presents a superb object. The choir is equal in height, and nearly 
assimilates in character, with the western part of the church. The 
procedure of our national architecture in richness of embellishment, 
during the reign of the third Edward, is decisively exhibited in the 
east front. This fetcade, like that towards the west, is chiefly divided 
into three architectural parts, by buttresses of unusual elegance. The 
great east window has been termed, by the historian of York, '' the 
finest window in the world," and is, assuredly, of exquisite beauty." 

the edifice. We commence with the most ancient, and notice the principal buildings according 
to priority of construction, rather than adjacency of parts.— The crypt is said by Mr. Drake 
(author of Eboracum, or the History and Antiquities of the City of York) to have been ** re* 
built** by archbishop Roger, about the year 1171* But, from the style of architecture, it is 
unquestionably of an earlier date, and was probably constructed during the prelacy of Tho> 
raas I. shortly after the year 1070. The south transept was built by Walter Grey, about IS27 ; 
and the north transept by John le Romaine, treasurer of this church, about 1909. Archbishop 
John le Romaine, son of the last-named person, commenced the erection of the nave, in 1291 ; 
but this part of the fabric was not completed until the time of archbishop de Melton, about the 
year 1930. The west front was erected nndei the auspices of this latter prelate. The present 
choir was begun by archbishop Thoresby, in 1361, and appears to have been chiefly executed 
during his prelacy, which extended to 1973. The chapter-house has been strangely attributed, 
by Drake, and several other writers, to the time of Walter Orey, who built the south transept. 
We are not aware of any documents which authenticate the «ra of its erection, but, from the 
prevalent architectural mode, it was certainly built in the fourteenth century. The central tower 
is said by Drake to have been commenced in 1970, and finished ** in seven or eight years.*' But, 
from the style of architecture, it is probably of a more recent date, and would api>earto have 
been chiefly constructed in the latter part of the fifteenth century. The upper parts of the tw« 
western towers were erected in the reign of Henry VI. 

12 In the frieze beneath this window are aeventeen buftos, the size of life i the llrat repre- 
senting a king, supposed to be Edward III. and the last a bishop, taid to be archbishop Thoresby. 
At the summit of the window is a statue of that prelate, which appears to have b«en placed there, 


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YORK CATU£DRAL, [a. O. 1819. 

The north side^ as regards the Exterior of the choir and nave, is simi- 
lar in character to that upon the south. But an accession of archi*> 
tectural grandeur is here obtained, in the beautiful proportions and 
rich embellishments of the chapter-house. We present an engraving 
of this side of the cathedral, as viewed in a north-west point of ob- 
servation. The fine elevation of the chapter-house ^ the transept, 
evincing the rude, but impressive, style of pointed architecture in its 
earliest stage ; and the great central tower, rising in all the stately 
splendour of the fifteenth century ; unite in forming a scene of extra* 
ordinary magnificence. 

The plan of this cathedral chiefly comprises a nave, with side 
aisles; a western, or principal transept, with aisles 5 a choir, also 
having lateral aisles ; and a lady's chapel, now thrown open to the 
aisles of the choir. Two windows of the choir rise to the whole 
height of the building, and, projecting from the main line of this 
part of the cathedral, produce a second, or eastern transept, of small 
extent. On the north, the chapter-house communicates with the 
principal transept, by means of an ornamental avenue ; and there are 
several buildings, of subordinate interest, connected with different 
parts of the edifice. 

The expectations created by an external view are surpassed on an 
examination of the interior. In the nave we behold, free from inno- 
vation, a fine example of the style which prevailed early in the reign 
of Edward III. the ''Augustan age of English architecture.*' The 
arches are of the most felicitous proportions of which the pointed form 
is susceptible ; the windows are richly, but not exuberantly, adorned 
with tracery :^-every part is ornamented, whilst no circumstance of 
redundant embellishment is seen in any direction. The windows of 
the nave, in common with those of nearly every part of the cathedral, 
are sumptuously decorated with painted glass." The capitals of the 
columns, and the knots in the groined ceiling, display much curious 
historic and hieroglypbical sculpture j and various armorial carvings 
are introduced in other parts. 

The principal transept is one of the richest examples remaining of 
that first regular modification of the pointed style in this country, 
which is usually denominated early English architecture. The arches 

in grateful remembrance of Uie completion of the cathedral under his auspices. On the second 
tier of the octangular buttresses at the angles, are statues of the two Icnights, Robert de 
Vavasour, and Robert dc Percy, who furnished stone and wood, from their respective estates, 
towards the re-ediflcation of the cathedral. Statues of the same benefactors also occur on the 
wen front. 

19 The principal window of the west front is divided, by muHions, into eight lights, the head 
being enriched with beautiful tracery. The painted glass in the lower divisions, represenU the 
eight earliest archbishops 6f York, and eight sainu. 


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A* D. 1&I9.] YORKSHIRE. 

are of a contracted and devious fornix whilst mouldings of chevron- 
vfOfk, and other ornamental particulars of the Anglo-Normans, are 
partially retained, — blended with growing refinements in that improved 
style afterwards displayed, with transcendant beauty, in superior parts 
of this edifice. 

The tower, constructed at the intersection of the nave and choir, 
is supported on four pointed arches, in the spandrils of which ,are 
sculptured armorial devices. The interior is worked in tiers of niches, 
surmounted by an open gallery of stone ; and the whole is illuminated 
by eight windows^ two on each side 5 — thus constituting the fabric of 
perforated masonry, termed a lantern. 

The screen which separates the nave and choir is extremely superb, 
and is enriched with statues of the English kings, from the time of 
the Conqueror down to Henry VI.'* Proceeding eastward, and enter- 
ing the choir, we find, in that part of the fabric, the same leading 
principles of architectural design as in the nave ; but a rising affection 
towards excess of ornament is visible in the subordinate parts, — a 
memorable denotation of the instability of taste, in a walk of art so 
open to vicissitude as that of ancient English architecture, the favour- 
ite soil of fanciful experiment. The sublime effect of this pan of the 
cathedral is greatly heightened by the magnificent east window, which 
is almost unrivalled in elegance of design, and splendour of '^ storied 

The solemn aisles of this stupendous fabric acquire an additional 
interest from numerous sepulchral monuments. The list of illustrious 
personages here interred commences with archbishop Bosa, who died 
in 687 1 but, in the various renovations of the structure^ the ashes of 
Anglo-Saxon kings, and early prelates, were too frequently treated 
with a barbarous want of veneration, and are now indiscriminately 
mixed with cominon dust.'^ The greater number of the archbishops, 

14 The figure of Heniy VI. U taid, by the historian of York, to have been taken down fai 
compliment to his regal successor, ** as the common people bore so high a yeneration for the 
memory of this sanctiaed king, that they began to pay adoration to his statue.** The statue of 
James I. now supplies the vacancy produced on the abore occasion. 

15 This celebrated window is nearly the same height and breadth as the choir, or central 
division of the eastern part of the cathedral. The part beneath the springing line of the head 
of the window, is in three ascending divisions. In width, nine divisions are produced by means 
of stone muliions. The head is ramified into tracery of a beautiful character. Each part is 
filled with pictured glass, representing events in sacred history, kings, saints, and mitred, 
ecclesiastics. The glazing of this window was commenced, at the expense of the dean and 
chapter, in the year 1405, under a contract with John Thornton, of Coventry, who stipulated 
to conclude the whole within three years. ^ 

16 It will be unnecessary to ascend to remote ages, in order to shew the little reverence 
evinced for sepulchral memorials by those who have regulated many alterations in our cathedral 
buildings. The church was newly paved in the year 17S6, after a design by the late lord Burl- 
Ingtou and Mr. Kent. At that time the numerous grave-stones in the western parts of the 
church (which, as we are told by one writer, iH^gured the ancient flooring) were woriced into 
Uie new pavement, the material being deemed extremely useful— after the erasure of tlie in- 

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YOBR CATHEDRAL, [a. D. 1819. 

since the re-edification of the cathedral commenced by Walter Grey, 
are buried within these walls ; and several of their monuments afford 
instructive examples of the state of the arts in respective ages. The 
funeral memorials to other persons are, in many instances, equally 
calculated to excite the sympathy of the moralist, and to gratify the 
curiosity of the student in sculptural decoration. 

Descending beneath the dreary tracts allotted to the dead, we 
enter the crypt, which subterranean part of the cathedral is worked 
under the eastern portion of the choir. The arches of the vaulting 
are circular 3 the pillars short and massy, their capitals shewing a 
studied diversity of embellishment. The whole of this gloomy divi- 
sion of the structure is evidently the production of an early Anglo-Nor- 
man age, and is, probably, a relic of the edifice constructed by 
archbishop Thomas, shortly after the conquest. 

The principal bmlding appertaining to the cathedral, but uncon- 
nected with the architectural design of the structure, is the Chapter 
House. This beautiful fabric is of an octangular form, having, in 
each of the eight compartments, except that which forms the entrance, 
a window of elegant proportions, enriched with delicate tracery. The 
stalls for the dignitaries are superbly canopied, and surmounted with a 
gallery of exquisite workmanship. It may, indeed, be affirmed that 
the peculiar magnificence of English architecture has been rarely dis- 
played in a more brilliant light, when exercised upon a contracted 
scale, than in this choice specimen, proverbially the '' fairest flower*' 
of the pointed style.*' Some extravagancies occur in the sculptured 
capitals of those taper pillars of marble which separate the stalls, and 
in the numerous pendants. We there view, exhibited in broad, and 

tcriptions ! The following particulars respecting the old pavement are extracted from Drake's 
Eboracum. ** At our entrance into the church, before we look upwards, and dazzle our eyes 
with the loftiness and spaciousness qt the building, it will be necessary first to cast them on the 
ground. Here, in the old pavement of this church, were almost an innumerable quantity of 
grave-stones, many of which formerly shone like embroidery, being enriched with the images, 
&c. in brass, of bishops, and other ecclesiastics, represented in their proper habits. In the 
same pavement were a number of circles, which ranged from the west end up the middle aisle, 
on each side and in the centre. They were about forty-four on a side, about two feet distance 
from one another, and as much in diameter. Those in the midst were fewer in number, larger,' 
and exactly fronted the entrance of the great west door, that circle nearest the entrance in this 
row being the largest of all. We take all these to have been drawn out for the ecclesiastics 
and dignitaries of the church to stand in, habited according to their proper distinctions, to 
receive an archbishop for installation, or on any other solemn occasion. The dean and the other 
great dignitaries, we presume, possessed the middle space, whilst the prebendaries, vicars, sa- 
crists, prie^ at altars, &c. belonging to the church, ranged on each side; and, altogether,' 
when clad in their proper copes and vestments, must have made a glorious appearance.** 

17 The chapter-house of York is scarcely ever noticed by topographical writers, from the time 
of Camden down to the present day, without the citation of the following verse, placed on the 
wall of the buildhig by an ancient architectural enthusiast : 

** Ut Rosa flos florum 

** Sic est domus ista domorum.** 
This Inscription cannot be moreexpreMlvtlytniiMkitcd than in the^ words of Mr.Drakc: <'the 
chief of liottMt, •» the rmt of floivm.** 

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A. D. 1819.] YORKSHIRE. 

sometimes indelicate features, the angry allusions which the regular 
clergy among the Roman Catholics were wont to cast upon the 
seculars, and which constituted the satire (perhaps the lampoons) of 
unlettered ages. It must, however, be remarked, that, on subjects 
more general, but not less capricious, the sculptor has expressed, with 
almost unparalleled felicity, those wild indications of genius which can 
be ranked under no other classes of design than the strange, the fearful, 
and the grotesque. The library was formerly in an eligible apartment 
at the south-west angle of the south transept, but has been lately 
removed to a building on the north-west of the Cathedral." 

The chief members of this cathedral church, besides the archbishop, 
are a dean ; precentor 3 chancellor ; sub-dean ; four archdeacons ; 
twenty-eight prebendaries 5 a sub-chantor ; and five vicars- choral, in 
priest's orders. There are, also, seven lay-clerks, or singing-men ; six 
choristers ; four vergers, &c. The archbishop collates to all the 
dignities, except the deanery. 

The only palace now belonging to this archiepiscopal see, is 
situated in Bishopthorpe, a small village in the vicinity of York, 
towards the south. The original palatial structure on this estate was 
erected by Walter Grey, in the reign of Henry III. shortly after that 
prelate purchased the manor, for the use of himself and his successors 
in the see. The buildings have, however, been re-edified at various 
times. Considerable alterations were made by the archbishops Dawes 
and Gilbert ; but the most extensive improvements were effected by 
archbishop Drummond. When this prelate was translated to the see 
of York, he found the palace incommodious, and possessed of little 
elegance, although much expense had been previously incurred in its 
restoration. The improvements commenced under his direction were 
begun about 1763, and the whole were completed in the six following 
years. The chief front and portico, which evince great excellence in 
architectural design, were finished in the year 1769, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Thomas Atkinson, au architect residing in York. The 
noble gateway, at the approach to the archiepiscopal demesne, was 
erected in 1765. '» The fine gardens attached to the palace were ori- 

1S The greater part of the books here reposited was bequeathed by the widow of archbishop 
Iffatthew, whose name has occurred in a preYious page. Many subsequent benefactions have 
taken place, and the library is now of considerable value. The works chiefly relate to divinity 
and history. The most curious articles are the manuscript collections of the late Mr. Torre, 
comprising extracts fVom the original records of this see, which were of great use to Mr. Drake, 
in his History of the City of York and its Cathedral Church.— It may not be undesirable to 
remark, in this place, that many local antiquities, of some interest, are preserved in the vestry 
of the cathedral. 

19 Antiquarian curiosity may be gratified by observing that the chief part of the stone used 
in constructing this gateway, and the renovated front of the palace, was brought from the ruined 
palace of Cawood, which formerly appertained to this see. 


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YORK CATHEDBAL. [a. D. 1819. 

ginally formed by archbishop Sharpe, but have been greatly improved 
by his successors. The whole palatial structure and its dependencies, 
are, in their present state, well adapted to those purposes of dignified 
hospitality which are incumbent on the primate of England. The 
liberal attentions of archbishop Drummond were not confined to the 
buildings of the palace. He also re-edified the archiepiscopal chapel, 
adding windows of stained glass, executed by Mr. Peckitt, of York. 
It must, also, be mentioned, that the parochial church of Bishop, 
thorpe was rebuilt at the instigation of this prelate, and chiefly at his 
individual expense. 

The deanery is a building of some antiquity, but considerably 
defaced by several modern windows, introduced to the principal divi- 
sions. It may not be superfluous to repeat the remark, that " this is 
the only house within the ancient close, inhabited by its proper owner, 
in right of the church to which it belongs.'* 

The diocess of York comprehends nearly the whole of Yorkshire j 
all Nottinghamshire ; and part of Northumberland ; which extent of 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction is divided into four archdeaconries. The 
bishoprics subordinate to this metropolitical s^e are those of Durham ; 
Carlisle 3 Chester; and Sodor and Man. 


Extreme LENGTH from east to west is 524 feet; LENGTH of the principal transept, from 
north to south, S22 feet. From the -west end to the choir door, S6l fe«t. LENGTH of the choir, 
130 r'eet ; of the space behind the altar, 26 feet ; and of the tady-chapel, 09 feet. HEIGHT of the 
VHulting in the nave , 99 feet ; of the two western towers, 196 feet; of the centra), or lantern, tower, 
213 feeu llie octangular chapter-house is 63 leet in diameter. ^ 


Plate 1. An Interior View of the South Aisle, shewing the Window at the east end, which 
is richly ornamented with painted glass. Underneath this Window is the monument of the 
Hon. T. W. Wentworth, third son of Edward lord Roclcingham, who died In 1793. On the 
left is seen part of the great East Window, which rises nearly to the height of the Choir, and 
exhibits much architectural beauty. It must be noticed, as a curious, and almost unique, 
feature, that a gallery of open stonework proceeds across this window, at the head of the 
second scries of lights. 

PiuU ft, Represents the Interior of the North and South TransepU, with part of the Mave. In 
the central part of the intersection are seen part of three of those lofty pointed arches which 
sustain the Greats or Lantern Tower. Above, is displayed a portion of the decorated interior 
of the same open Tower. 

Plau 3. A View of the two Western Towers, with part of the Naive and its Aisle. 

PlMe 4. An Exterior View, taken from the North-west, and shewing the great central Tower} 
the Nate and its Aisle j the North Transept i and the Chapter-house. We have already ob- 
served that this plate strongly exhibits each of the three stales of architecture which prevail 
in York Cathedral. 

Flau ». This View is taken from the Dean*s Garden, and shews the ancient, but partially 
modernized. Garden-front of the Deanery. In the distance the Cathedral rises with unusual 
magnificence. The parts here ekhibited to observation are the Central and two Western 
Towers > the end of the South Transept; and part of the Choir, comprising that lofty pro- 
jecting Window which constitutes one part of the Second, or Eastern, Transept. 

Pldfe 6, Represento the Crypt under the eastern part of the Chcnr. In the distance U seen part 
of the Aisle of the Choir. 

FkUM 7. Is A View of the Chapter-bouse, from the East. On the left are seen parts of the North 
Transept and its Aisle. 

Plate 8. A North-west View of the Archiepiscopal Pftlace, Uken from the Banks of the Ouse. 

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*•* The italic Utters indicate the pages marked at the bottom of the left side 9 
thus (a) (b) Sfc, and the letter N. for note* 

Albert, archbishop, a natire of York, 
supposed to have descended from a noble fa* 
■>Uy, dj journeyed to Rome, ib. j rebuilt the 

cathedral, ib.— Alcuin, an ecclesiastic em- 
ployed by Albert in rebuilding the cathedral, 
d N; left a poetical memorial of his patron, ib, 
— Aldred, occupied the see at the time of the 
liforman Conquest, d ; his character, ib. } anec- 
dote of him, ib. N. ; indebted for his elevation 
to Edward the Confessor, e; crowned William 
the Conqaeror, Ib. } time of bis death, ib. } 
contributed to building the churches of Berer- 
ley and Gloucester, ib.—Arutidel, Thomas, 
translated hither from Ely,/) the first arch- 
bishop removed from this see to that of Can- 
terbury, ib, 

Bainbridge, archbishop, poison administered 
to him by an Italian priest, ; .— Bi8hopthoi*pe, 
ehnrch of, rebuilt by archbishop Orummund, 
g.— Bosa, the first archbishop that was buried 
in this cathedral, c— Bustos, seventeen be- 
neath the great east window, I N. 

Cilthedral, reduced to a state bordering on 
rahnbythe Danes and Northumbrians, et a 
church composed of stone foi!inded by king 
Edwin, k I reduced to a state of ruin in time 
of war, ib. j repaired by archbishop Albert, ib. | 
reduced nearly to the ground by conflagration, 
and rebuilt by archbishop Thomas, ib. j again 
destroyed by fire, ib.) the eastern division 
rebuilt by archbishop Roger, ib. ; most ancient 
JMft of the present building erected in time of 
Henry III. lb. ) dates at which different parts 
of the cathedral were erected, ib. N. ) descrip- 
tion of the building, I o; often termed York 
Hinster, l; exterior, ib. ; south side, ib.) 
choir, lb.) east front, ib.) north side, M) 
plan, ib. ) interior, ib. ) nave, ib. ; principal 
transept, ib.) tower, n; lantern, ib. screen 
enriched with statues of English kings, ib. $ 
great east window, ib. ) aisles, ib. } the old 
pftvement described by Drake, a o, N.— Chapel, 
archiepiscopal, re-edified by archbishop Drum- 
mond, q. — Chapter House, o-pi citation of a 
verse placed on the wall of the building, ib. N. ) 
sculpture on the capitals of the pillars, o /».» 
• Christianity, the propagation of accelerated by 
the marriage of Edwin, king of Northumbria, 
a.— Ciypt, supposed to have been built by 
archbishop Thomas, o. 

Deanery, 9.— Diocess, extent of, ib.— Drum- 
mond, archbishop, < ) preached a sermon on 
the coronation of his present Migesty, ib. 

Edwin, king, married to the daughter of 
BAelbert, king of Kent, h% became a proselyte 
to the christian faith, ib. ; received baptismal 
beitediction in the city of York, ib. } erected 
a church at York, ib. ) killed Ih battle, c. 

Gardens attached to the palace, p 9.— Grey, 
archbishop, favourite counsellor and minister 
of king John, /; founded the sub-deanery, 
succentors^ip, and two prebends, ib. N. ) pur- 
chased White Hall, as a London residence for 
tlie archbishops, ib. ) settled on the see the 
manor of Thorpe, ib.— Grindal, Edmund, suc- 
cessively bishop of Lohdon, archbishop of 
ToHc, and airchblshop of Canterbury, hi one of 

the select members of the protestant church 
in the time of Edward IV. and Elizabeth, ib. 

Heath, archbishop, the estates, which weri 
alienated tq the crown by archbishop Holgate, 
restored through his influence in the reign of 
queen Mary, g % death, ib. ) expelled his sec 
by Elizabeth, ib.— Herring, archbishop, i) 
his character and exemplary conduct durinf 
the rebellion of 1745, ib.— Holgate, archbishop, 
g', alienated to the crown sixty-seven mv* 
nors, ib. 

Library, p ) greater part of the books be- 
queathed by the widow of archbishop Mat- 
thew, ib. N. ) contains the manuscript col- 
lections of the late Mr. Torre, ib. 

Markham, archbishop, i.— Matthew, arch* 
bishop, his talenU held in high esteem by 
Elizabeth and James I. &) notice of his epi- 
Uph, ib. N.— Melton, archbishop, contri- 
buted to the cathedral and contiguous build- 
ings, /.—Members, present, of the cathedral, 
p.— Monuments, numerous in this cathedral, 

Neile, archbishop. A.— Neville, archbishop, 
brother of the earl of Warwick, /) his in- 
thronizaiion feast described, ib. N. 

Palace, archiepiscopal, p) the original 
structure erected by Walter Grey, ib. ) ex- 
tensive improvements effected by archbishop 
Drummond, Ib. — Pauiinus, archbishop, be- 
stowed the baptismal benediction on king Ed- 
win, 6} ndsed a fabric, composed of wood, 
for that celebration, ib. ) built a church of 
stone at Lincoln, c) retired to Kent, and was 
appointed bishop of Rochester, ib.— Planta- 
genet, archbishop, natural son of Henry II. <; 
his character, ib.— Plates, list of, q, 

Sandys, Edwin, one of the divines appoint- 
ed to argue with the Roman catholics before 
the two houses of pariiameut, ;^— Scrope, 
archbishop, Entered into rebellion against 
Henry IV. /) beheaded in a field near Bishop- 
thorpe by ortter of that king, ib.— Sharpe, 
archbishop, one of the most able prelates of 
his time, ».— Statues of Henry VI. and James 
I. nN. 

Thoresby, archbishop, order of precedency 
established in his time, c d N. —Thomas, 
archbishop, restored the cathedral after it 
was destroyed in 10«d, e) divided the estata 
of the church into prebends, ib. N.— Thores- 
by, second archbishop of that name, /.— Til- 
lotson, archbishop, t. 

Yemoo, hon. Edward Venables, present 
archbishop of York, k, 

Wilfrid, third archbishop, one of the most 
distinguished prelates of his age, c ; twice 
expelled his see, ib. ; founded the churches 
of Hexham and Ripon, ib. N.— Wilfrid, sixth 
archbishop, c) commenced a dispute with the 
archbishops of Canterbury respecting priority 
of rank, ib.— William, archbishop, nephew 
of king Stephen, e j received canonization, ib . 
Williams, John, h ) commanded at the siege 
of Conway castle, ib.) retired to Wales, 
where he died, ib.— Wolsey, card, g, , arrest^ 
for high treason, and died at LeicesUr, il>. 

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Pauliiius 625 

See Vacant Twenty Years, 
Cedda 664 

St. Wilfrid 667 

Bosa 677 

St. John of Beverley 687 
Wilfrid 11. 718 

See Vacant aiout Twelve 

E^rt 743 

Albert • 767 

Eanbaldl. 781 

Eanbaldir. 797 

Wulsi, or Wulwi 812 
Wymund 831 

Wilfere 854 

See probably Vacant for 

several Years, (\) 
Etbelbald 900 

RedwardorRodewald 921 
WuUUn I. 930 

Oscitel 955 

Athelwald 971 

St. Oswald 971 

Adulph 993 

WuUtanll. 1003 

Alfric Puttoc 1023 

Kinsine 1051 

Aldred 1061 

Thomas I. 1070 

Gerard 1101 

Thomas II. 1109 

Tbiirstan 1114 

Henry Murdac 1 140 

Hugo, or Hufch 
Will, de St. Barbara 
Robert dc Gaiit 1 142 
Robert de Botevillin 
Hubert Walker 1186 

Henry Marshall 1189 
Simon de Apulia 1 191 
Hamo 1206 

Roger de Insula 
Galf. de Norwico 
Fuko Basset 
William 1244 

Walter deKyrkham 
Sewal de Bovil 
Godfrey deLudeham 1256 
Roger de Holderness 1 258 
Will, de Langton 1266 
Rob. de Scardeburg 1279 
Hen. de Newark 1290 
Will, de Hamelton 1298 
Regi nald de Gothe ] 309 



St. William 1153 

Roger 1154 

See Vacant Ten Years, 
Geoflf. Plantagenet 11 91 

See Vacant Four Years. 
Walter Grey 1216 

Sewal de Bovil 1256 

Godfrey de Ludebam 1258 
Walter Giffard 1266 

William Wickwaine 1279 
John leRomaine 1285 
Henry de Newark 1296 
Thos. de Corbridge 1299 
Wm. de Greenfield, 

or Greenville 1305 
William de Melton 1315 
Wm. de la Zouch 1340 
John Thoresby 1352 

Alexander Neville 1374 
Thomas Arundel 1388 
Robert Waldby 1396 

Richard Scrope 1398 

See Vacant about Two 

Henry Bowet 1407 

See Vacant Two Years, 
John Kempe 1425 

W, Bothe, or Booth 1452 
George Neville 1464 

L. Bothe, or Booth 1476 
Thos. de Rotheram 1480 
Thomas Savage 1500 

Christ. Bainbridge 1508 
Thomas Wolsey 1514 


Will, de Pyrering 1310 

Rob. de Pyrering 1312 

Will, de Colby 1332 

Will, de la Zouch 1333 

Phil, de Weston 1347 
Tailerand, Ep. Albau 

Joseph Anglicus 1366 

Adam 1381 

Edf. de Strafford 1385 
Roger Walden 

Richard Clyfford 13.92 

Thomas Langley 1 40 1 

John Prophete 1407 

Thomas Polton 1416 

Will, Grey 1421 

Robert Gilbert 1426 

William Fetter 1437 

Richard Andrews 1454 

Robert Bothe 1477 

Cbris. Urstwyre 1488 

William Sheffield 1494 

See Vacant One Year, 
Edward Lee 1531 

Robert Holgate 1544 

Nicholas Heath 1555 
Thomas Young 1561 

See Vacant nearly Two 

Edmund Grindal 1570 
Edwin Sandys 1576 

John Piers 1588 

Matthew Hut ton 1595 

See Vacant One Year. 
Tobias Matthew 1606 
George Monteigu 162B 
Samuel Harsnet 1629 

See Vacant One Year, 
Richard Neile 1632 

John Williams 1641 

See Vacant Ten Years. 
Accepted Frewen 1660 
Richard Sterne 1664 

John Dolben 1683 

See Vacant Two Years. 
Thomas Lamplugh 1688 
John Sharpe 1691 

Sir W.Dawes, Bt. 1713 
Lancel. Blackburne 1724 
Thomas Herring 1743 
Matthew Hutton 1747 
John Gilbert 1757 

Robert Drummond 1761 
WilUam Markham 1777 
Hon. Edward Venablks 

Vernon 1791 

Geoffrv Blythe 1496 

Christ. Bainbridge 1503 

James Harrington 1507 

Thomas Wolsey 1512 

John Younge 1514 

Brian Higden 1516 

Richard Layton 1539 

Nicholas Wotton 1544 

Matthew Hutton 1567 

John Thornburgh 1589 

George Meritou 161 7 

John Scott 1624 

Richard March 1660 

William Sancroft 1663 

Robert Hitch 1664 

Tobias Wickham 1676 

Thomas Gale 1697 

Henry Finch 1702 
Richard Osbaldcston 1128 

John Fountayne 1747 

George Markham 1802 

(1) Considttrable difficulty occurs in arranging the succession of bishops at this period., 
Buring the episcopacy of Wilfere, the invading Danes commenced those ravages in which York 
severely participated. In naming Ethelbaldas the successor of Wilfere, we have taken William 
of Malmsbury as our authority. 

Plate 9 (omitted m the List of Plates) is the entrance to the Chapter-house Vignette, Title 
to Vol. IV. 

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